Helen Lowe's Wordcaster




My grandmother, Helen Lowe, wrote a WORDCASTER series as a teaching aid for her reading students. They were lists of four rhyming words, constructed so that the consonant or consonant combination at the beginning could be seen separately from the rest of the word. In the original format, the word lists presented increasingly difficult phonetics.

My grandmother also constructed, a big board that she called a Wordcaster, on which the consonants and consonant combinations that begin most one syllable English words were listed, and a large variety of one syllable word endings could be clipped onto them. Atleast this is consistent with both my mother's memory, and the arrangement of my grandmother's handmade wordcaster books of phonetic exercises composed of groups of rhyming words. But I vaguely recall that the board also had word endings that one could attach tabs of word beginnings to - which would not be inconsistent with the sort of game she made of it.

One could use this board for basic phonetic exercises, even vary them in difficulty if one wanted to. One could also make a sort of card game by having instructor and student pick from their respective piles of word ending tabs, and attempt to make valid words.

There may have been several generations of the Wordcaster; while I saw the board with tabs and my mother helped make it, an older cousin tells of a version that involved a turning wheel, and if my grandmother managed to invent a single wheel that could put all the hundreds below of word endings over the 60 or so possible word beginnings, that would be a remarkable invention. However, by my childhood in teh early sixties this is not what she was using. If she ever made such a thing, maybe students didn't find it as much fun!

My grandmother constructed this game, or some version of it - from her own analysis of English phonetics - and is supposed to have copyrighted it or patented it - or possibly simply registered the trademark Wordcaster. However, she did not copyright nor patent the concepts behind her game, nor that sort of game, which as can clearly be seen below, are commonplace.

I began the construction of the following list by transcribing my grandmother's Wordcaster books and merging the material together. Then I added more rhyming words, and I probably added more word endings. I also used a couple of phonics programs that I subsequently gave my nephews, and a phonetic flash card set that otherwise wasn't good for much. I then revised my chart in light of the work on word families and phonograms cited below. After all this I added only one major word list, though I added some very small word families including such phongrams as the six pronunciations of ough!

37 Most Common Phonograms in the English Language from "The Teachers' Book of Lists

Those are ab, ack, ag, ail, ain, ake, am, an, ank, ap, at, ay, eed, ell, est, ew, ick, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, ob, ock, op, ore, ot, out, ow, uck, um, unk, y.

Summary of basic phonologic principles: 71 REVISED "ORTON" PHONOGRAMS FOR CORRECT SPELLING

These include, besides the letters of the alphabet; ear, oa, oe, ay, oy, aw, ew (grew, few), ey (they, key), ir, or, ai, au, eu, ei (veil, receive), sh, zh, ti, si, ci, ck, dge, tch, ch, kn, gn, ee, igh, eigh, wr, ph, ow (low, now), ou (out, four, you, country), wh, ar, oo (boot, foot, floor), ui (fruit, guide, build), or, th (this, think), ough (though, through, rough, cough, thought, bough).

Riggs Institute: What we teach

Alpha-Phonics Phonograms: Key Words, Prepared by Donald Potter

70 Phonograms in the "Writing Road to Reading" (Spalding Method)

Here are examples of the phonogram games I found online. They include a flashcard version of the Wordcaster game on index cards, a version made from lego blocks, a version made of magnetic tiles, and online flash and java phonogram and word family games.

Phonics game for kindergarten

Use 3x5 cards to write phonics parts. (Put together, they will make words) For example, you could make the following cards:
ba t ca d pi g bi te n hu (etc.)

make a bunch of these up and then throw them into a box or bag. The child then picks two cards out and puts them together. The child sounds the cards out to see if it makes a legitimate word. If it does, he keeps the cards in his pile, if not, then he throws the cards back into the box. Then it is the next child's, (or mother's) turn. As the child progresses through phonics, you can make it harder and harder by using long vowels and consonant blends. My daughter doesn't seem to tire of this game. For more ideas for preschoolers, visit our web site!

Phonics concentration game (from thephonicspage.org)

PHONICS CONCENTRATION GAME

Here are rules for playing and making your own phonics concentration game. It's useful and fun for both new and remedial students. You can either make your own cards with 3 X 5 cards or print out the PDF files at the bottom of this page on cardstock.

Phonics Concentration

2-4 players

Rules of Play:

Spread out 20 - 40 cards total, half 1’s and half 2’s, number side up. Put the 1’s on the left, the 2’s on the right. The youngest player goes first. The first player draws one 1 card and one 2 card. Then, they put the cards letter side up and sound out the word. The player gets 1 point for correctly sounding out the word, and an additional point of the word is a real word spelled correctly. The player keeps all cards that have been properly sounded out. If the word is sounded out incorrectly, the player gets 0 points and has to put the cards back. For example: kat or mip sounded out correctly is 1 point because they’re not correct words. Dig or tip sounded out correctly are worth 2 points. Play until all the cards are gone.

The cards can also be used as flash cards with the student saying the sound, not the name or names, of the letters.

Here are the Letters to use. The beginning sounds get a 1 on the back, the ending sounds get a 2 on the back. You can cut 3 X 5 cards in half and use them. Put the starting letters towards the right side of the card and the ending sounds towards the left so they’ll match up well.

Beginning sounds (put a 1 on their backs, and underline these):

d d f l m n p p s t b b h j k r

y z v w bl cl fl gl pl sl spl sn sm st str sp

br cr dr fr gr pr tr shr spr ph qu sw d d f l

m n p p s t b b h j k r

Ending sounds (put a 2 on their backs, you don’t need to underline these):

in ip ig ick ist id ad aft an ap at ash od og om on

ock ost ed eff esh est end eck un um ud up ush ust ake ame

ain ail ait ay ete eed een eat ike ide igh ite ipe ine oke ote

oat oak ube ute uke oin oil oy ool all ell ill

Phonics Games and Activity Sets See the Let's Spell flip books - spiral notebooks, students interchange beginning, middle vowel, and end, of words.

Online version:

Language Arts Games

Word Families

Gawain's Word
Ack An Ap Ar
Ick Ig Ip It
Ock Op Est
Ub Uck Ug

Students click on one of the word families. Then they click on a consonant letter to make the letter and word family ending "joust" to make a word.
Make-a-Word
-an -en -in -og -ub
-at -et -ip -ot -ug

Click on one of the word families. Then click on a consonant letter to create word family words to match the picture shown.
Magnetic Chalkboard
How many words can you make using the same endings? Click on the magnets on the board and drag them to make words. Endings include
and, eat, ice, ink, ace, ake, est, atch, ake, ool, ick

Dositey Phonics Ending Game Make word family words with the following:
-an, -ar, -ap, -ag, -en, -at, -all, -atee, -ail, -ub
Word Maker Make word family words with the following:
-an, -ed, -ig, -at, -et, -in, -op, -ot, -un

Add beginning consonants to make words

Make-A Word
-ar -or -er
-obe -ube
-ane -ine
-ee -ai

For the silent e words: students need to make a word first with a word family ending such as "an" and then add silent e to make a new word


Reading Rods® Word Families Classroom Kit LER: 7101 Price: $ 54.95 1
Age: 6 to 7 Quantity Select Item
Emergent readers put consonants and high-frequency word endings together to build simple words, with this phonics "staple." Reading Rods® make beginning reading an enjoyable hands-on activity! Kit contains 24 double-sided activity cards, a 48-page Instruction and Activity Book with over 100 full-color demonstration cards, 4 activity trays, and 90 rods in a storage tub.
Rods include:
- Consonants
- Beginning Blends
- 2, 3, and 4-letter word families
Skills Taught:
- Recognizing short and long vowel word patterns
- Learning initial consonant sounds and initial consonant blends
- Grouping words with similar vowel sounnds
- Establishing spelling patterns

A version with magnetic tiles for a dry-erase magnetic board:

Magnetic Phonics Tiles: The Word Families and
Magnetic Phonics Tiles: Blends and Digraphs
Magnetic Phonics Tiles: Advanced Vowels
Magnetic Phonics Tiles: The Alphabet

Magnetic Phonics Tiles: Word Families Set of 233
Magnetic Phonics Tiles: Blends & Digraphs Set of 147
Magnetic Phonics Tiles: The Alphabet
Magnetic Phonics Tiles: Advanced Vowels

A great way to reinforce your phonics lesson, these 1" magnetic tiles can be used with individuals, small groups, or in student centers. Used on their own, or as an extension to the Reading Rods® program, these tiles offer just about everything you need to establish a solid reading foundation.

A common variant of this concept is the rhyme wheel, where students turn a small wheel to move word endings over a variety of initial consonents. A word wheel might be employed for more than one word family with similar beginning letters, or enough of them in common to provide practice in the phonetics. I saw a version of this game available in an educational store in the Highland Mall a couple of years ago. A version on the web suggests that beginning readings students actually construct such wheels themselves, for various word families, and even suggests they add pictures.


Initial phonemes of English one syllable words (my own analysis based on the 
word list below) - with variant spellings of some initial phonemes.  

b
c
d
f
g
h
h
k
l
m
n
p
q
r
s
t
v
w
y
z
bl
br
cr
ch
cl
dr
fr
fl
gl
gr
ph
pl
pr
qu
sc
sh
sm
st
sp
sk
sn
sl
scr
str
spl
sw
th
tr
tw
thr

gu
gn
kn
wr
wh

The starred lists in the table below correspond to the various slightly varying lists of the 37 most common phonograms in English.

The chart below is compiled in phonetic order. It isn't necessarily the order in which one would use the phonograms to teach someone to read. One might want to begin with the long and short vowels, with or without the consonental combinations.

I'm still working on the formatting. The chart below is a WORD table saved in HTML formatting. I have the cell coloring half done, and some of the colors aren't right.

Long Vowel

 

 

Short Vowel

Long Vowel

 

 - ay                               **

p + ay = pay

b + ay = bay

l + ay = lay

s + ay = say

d + ay = day

r + ay  = ray

b + ay = bay

g + ay = gay

j + ay = jay

m + ay = may

n + ay = nay

w + ay = way

----------

cl + ay = clay

pl + ay = play

pr + ay = pray

tr + ay = pray

br + ay = bray

spr + ay = spray

str + ay = stray

spl + ay = splay

 

- eigh

w + eigh = weigh

sl + eigh = sleigh

n + eigh = neigh

 

- ey  (long e and long a)

h + ey = hey

w + ey = wey

th + ey = they

o - + b + ey = obey

- ab                          **

j + ab = jab

c + ab = cab

d + ab = dab

n + ab = nab

t + ab = tab

l + ab = lab

--------------------

sc + ab = scab

st + ab = stab

gr + ab = grab

cr + ab = crab

 

- ad                             **

b + ad = bad

h + ad = had

m + ad = mad

s + ad = sad

l + ad = lad

f + ad = fad

gl + ad = glad

- ade

b + ade = bade

m + ade = made

f + ade = fade

w + ade = wade

--------------------------

gl + ade = glade

sp + ade = spade

tr + ade = trade

bl + ade = blade

 

- aid

l + aid = laid

p + aid = paid

m + aid = maid

r + aid = raid

--------------------------------

st + aid = staid

- ag                        **

b + ag = bag

r + ag = rag

s + ag = sag

w + ag = wag

n + ag = nag

t + ag = tag

------------------

br + ag = brag

st + ag = stag

fl + ag = flag

- age

r + age = rage

s + age = sage

w + age = wage

c + age = cage

p + age = page

----------------------

st + age = stage

- ack                        **

r + ack = rack

l + ack = lack

s + ack = sack

m + ack = mack

b + ack = back

p + ack = pack

t + ack = tack

--------------------

bl + ack = black

sn + ack = snack

tr + ack = track

st + ack = stack

cr + ack = crack

st + ack = stack

cr + ack = crack

sh + ack = shack

qu + ack = quack

- ake                  **

r + ake = rake

l + ake = lake

b + ake = bake

m + ake = make

t + ake = take

c + ake = cake

f + ake = fake

--------------------

sn + ake = snake

st + ake = stake

sh + ake = shake

 

- eak (long a - also spells long e)

br + eak = break

st + eak = steak  

- al

p + al = pal

H + al = hal

G + al = gal

M + al = mal

V + al = Val

- ale

p + ale = pale

h + ale = hale

g + ale = gale

m + ale = male

b + ale = bale

s + ale = sale

v + ale = vale

-------------------

st + ale = stale

wh + ale = whale

sh + ale = shale

 

- ail                  **

h + ail = hail

t + ail = tail

b + ail = bail

n + ail = nail

r + ail = rail

s + ail = sail

m + ail = mail

p + ail = pail

w + ail - wail

--------------------------

tr + ail = trail

qu + ail = quail

fr + ail = frail

fl + ail = flail

- am

b + am = bam

r + am = ram

S + am = Sam

C + am = cam

D + am = dam

J + am = jam

---------------------

cr + am = cram

cl + am = clam

scr + am = scram

sh + am = sham

sl + am = slam

- ame                 **

s + ame = same

c + ame = came

d + ame = dame

g + ame = game

n + ame = name

t + ame = tame

f + ame = fame

l + ame = lame

------------------------

sh + ame = shame

bl + ame = blame

fr + ame = frame

 

 

 

 

- an              **

m + an = man

p + an = pan

r + an = ran

t + an = tan

c + an = can

f + an = fan

v + an = van

D + an = Dan

B + an = ban

-------------------

pl + an = plan

br + an = bran

sp + am - spam

- ane

m + ane = mane

p + ane = pane

b + ane = bane

D + ane = Dane

C + ane = cane

V + ane = Vane

----------------------

pl + ane = plane

 

- ain               **

r + ain = rain

p + ain = pain

g + ain = gain

l + ain = lain

C + ain = Cain

m + ain = main

-----------------------

br + ain = brain

st + ain = stain

str + ain = strain

tr + ain - train

dr + ain = drain

sw + ain = swain

pl + ain = plain

ch + ain = chain

 

- eign

r + eign = reign

f + eign = feign

d + eign = deign

th + eign = theign

 

- ein

r + ein = rein

v + ein = vein

sk + ein = skein

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ap                  **

n + ap = nap

c + ap = cap

g + ap = gap

m + ap = map

r + ap = rap

s + ap = sap

t + ap = tap

l + ap = lap

z + ap = zap

---------------------

tr + ap = trap

cl + ap = clap

sn + ap = snap

fl + ap = flap

wr + ap = wrap

tr + ap = trap

scr + ap = scrap

str + ap = strap

ch + ap = chap

- ape

n + ape = nape

g + ape = gape

c + ape = cape

t + ape = tape

------------------------

dr + ape = drape

gr + ape = grape

sh + ape = shape

scr + ape = scrape

- as

h + as = has

g + as = gas

 

- ass

b + ass = bass

p + ass = pass

m + ass = mass

l + ass = lass

--------------------

br + ass = brass

cr + ass = crass

gr + ass = grass

gl + ass = glass

cl + ass = class

- ase

v + ase = vase

b + ase = base

c + ase = case

 

- ace

p + ace = pace

r + ace = race

l + ace = lace

f + ace = face

------------------

gr + ace = grace

pl + ace = place

tr + ace = trace

 

 

 

 

- at

h + at = hat

f + at = fat

s + at = sat

r + at = rat

p + at = pat

c + at = cat

m + at = mat

v + at = vat

b + at = bat

---------------------

st + at = stat

sl + at = slat

th + at = that

gh + at = gnat

br + at = brat

spl + at = splat

dr + at = drat

ch + at = chat

- ate

h + ate = hate

f + ate = fate

g + ate = gate

s + ate = sate

r + ate = rate

m + ate = mate

l + ate = late

K + ate = Kate

--------------------

cr + ate = crate

st + ate = state

sl + ate = slate

pl + ate = plate

 

 - ait               **

w + ait = wait

b + ait = bait

g + ait = gait

tr + ait = trait

str + ait = strait

 

- eight

w + eight = weight

fr + eight = freight

 

 

- ave

g + ave = gave

w + ave = wave

r + ave = rave

s + ave = save

c + ave = cave

D + ave = Dave

-------------------------

sh + ave = shave

br + ave = brave

st + ave = stave

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ax

w + ax = wax

f + ax = fax

p + ax = pax

s + ax = sax

t + ax = tax

l + ax = lax

---------------------

fl + ax = flax

 

 

- aze

g + aze = gaze

d + aze = daze

h + aze = haze

bl + aze = blaze

gr + aze = graze

- ang

b + ang = bang

s + ang = sang

r + ang = rang

t + ang = tang

f + ang = fang

g + ang = gang

-----------------------

st + ang = stang

br + ang = brang

sl + ang = slang

 

 

- ange

r + ange = range

m + ange = mange

------------------------

gr + ange = grange

str + ange = strange

ch + ange + change

- ank                     **

b + ank = bank

d + ank = dank

t + ank = tank

r + ank = rank

s + ank = sank

y + ank = yank

l + ank = yank

---------------------------

fl + ank = flank

pl + ank = plank

pr + ank = prank

th + ank = thank

cl + ank = clank

cr + ank = crank

dr + ank = drank

sp + ank = spank

shr + ank = shrank

 

 

- ant

r + ant = rant

p + ant = bant

--------------------------

pl + ant = plant

gr + ant = grant

sl + ant = slant

ch + ant = chant

- aint

f + aint = faint

p + aint = paint

t + aint = taint

s + saint = saint

-----------------------

qu + aint = quaint

 

- ance

l + ance = lance

d + ance = dance

-------------------------

ch + ance = chance

Fr + ance = France

gl + ance = glance

pr + ance = prance

 

 

- and

b + and = band

s + and = sand

l + and = land

h + hand = hand

--------------------------

st + and = stand

str + and = strand

 

 

- amp                 **

c + amp = camp

r + amp = ramp

d + amp = ramp

l + amp = lamp

v + amp = vamp

---------------------------

st + amp = stamp

cl + clamp = clamp

sc + amp = scamp

cr + amp = cramp

tr + amp = tramp

 

 

- aft                 **

r + aft = raft

h + aft = haft

---------------------

gr + aft = graft

dr + aft = draft

sh + aft = shaft

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ask

b + ask = bask

c + ask = cask

m + ask = mask

t + ask = task

h + ask = hask

 

 

- asp

h + asp = hasp

r + asp = rasp

g + asp = gasp

----------------------------

cl + asp = clasp

gr + asp = grasp

 

 

- ast

f + ast = fast

p + ast = past

c + ast = cast

m + ast = mast

l + ast = last

v + ast = vast

h + ast = hast

-----------------------

bl + ast = blast

- aste

p + aste = paste

h + aste = paste

t + aste = taste

w + aste = waste

b + aste = baste

 

- act

f + act = fact

p + act = pact

t + act = tact

tr + act = tract

 

 

-ash                       **

b + ash = bash

c + ash = cash

d + ash = dash

g + ash = gash

l + ash = lash

r + ash = rash

s + ash = sash

h + ash = hash

m + ash = mash

br + ash = brash

cr + ash = crash

cl + ash = clash

fl + ash = flash

st + ash = stash

tr + ash = trash

spl + ash = splash

 

 

 

- atch

m + atch = match

p + atch = patch

h + atch = hatch

-----------------------------

sn + atch = snatch

scr + atch = scratch

 

 

- ar                  **

c + ar = car

t + ar = tar

p + ar = par

b + ar = bar

j + ar = jar

-----------------------

st + ar = star

- are

c + are = care

m + are = mare

n + are = nare

b + are = bare

----------------------

fl + are = flare

st + are = stare

squ + are = square

 

 

- air

f + air = fair

p + air = pair

h + air = hair

------------------------

ch + air = chair

st + air = stair

 

 

- ear (spells both long e and long a)

t + ear = tear

b + ear = bear

p + ear = pear

--------------------------

sw + ear = swear

 

- ard

c + ard = card

h + ard = hard

l + ard = lard

b + ard = bard

---------------------

ch + ard = chard

gu + ard = guard

 

 

- ark

b + ark = bark

d + ark = dark

p + ark = park

h + ark = hark

l + ark = lark

m + ark = mark

---------------------------

sp + ark = spark

 

 

- art

p + art = part

c + art = cart

d + art = dart

m + art = mart

h + art = hart

t + art = tart

---------------------

ch + art = chart

st + art = start

 

 

- arch

m + arch = march

--------------------------

st + arch = starch

 

 

- arge (silent e makes g soft)

l + arge = large

b + arge = barge

M + arge = Marge

-----------------------

ch + arge = charge

 

 

- arm

f + arm = farm

h + arm = harm

-----------------------

ch + arm = charm

 

 

- arn

b + arn = barn

d + arn = darn

 

 

- ar as long o

w + ar = war

w + arm = warm

sw + arm = swarm

w + ar + n = warn

 

 

- all                       **

b + all = ball

f + all = fall

c + all = call

t + all = tall

g + all = gall

h + all = hall

-----------------------

sm + all = small

st + all = stall

squ + all = squall

thr + all = thrall

 

 

 

 

 

- awl

b + awl = bawl

cr + crawl = crawl

sh + awl = shawl

spr + awl = sprawl

br + awl = brawl

 

 

 

- alt

s + alt = salt

m + alt = malt

B + alt = Balt

 

 

- ald

b + ald = bald

sc + ald = scald

 

 

- alm

c + alm = calm

b + alm = balm

p + alm = palm

ps + alm = psalm (ps = s)

 

 

-alk

t + alk = talk

w + alk = walk

b + alk = balk

-----------------------

st + alk = stalk

ch + alk = chalk

 

 

- aught  (silent gh)

t + aught = taught

c + aught = caught

n + aught = naught

-----------------------------------

fr + aught = fraught

d + aught + er = daughter

 

 

- aunt

h + aunt = haunt

g + aunt = gaunt

t + aunt = taunt

d + aunt = daunt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- aw                   **

s + aw = saw

h + aw = haw

p + aw = paw

r + aw = raw

l + aw = law

-------------------------

sl + aw = slaw

dr + aw = draw

 

 

- awn

l + awn = lawn

d + awn = dawn

y + awn = yawn

f + awn = fawn

p + awn = pawn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ea

t + ea = tea

s + ea = sea

p + ea = pea

---------------------

fl + ea = flea

 

 

- ee

s + ee = see

b + ee = bee

w + ee = wee

----------------------

tr + ee = tree

thr + ee = three

fr + ee = free

 

 

- e

b + e = be

w + e = we

 

 

-ey (long e and long a)

k + ey = key

 

- ed                 **

b + ed = bed

r + ed = red

l + ed = led

f + ed = fed

w + ed = wed

---------------------

sl + ed = sled

pl + ed = pled

bl + ed = bled

sp + ed = sped

Few one syllable words with e are

           spelled with final silent e.

- eed

f + eed = feed

w + eed = weed

h + eed = heed

d + eed = seed

-------------------------

bl + eed = bleed

cr + eed = creed

gr + eed = greed

st + eed = steed

sn + eed = sneed

 

- ead (short e)

h + ead = head

d + ead = dead

l + ead = lead

-------------------------

br + ead = bread

dr + ead = dread

thr + ead = thread

spr + ead = spread

- ead (long e)

b + ead = bead

r + ead = read

l + ead = lead

---------------------

pl + ead = plead

kn + ead = knead

 

 

Ie in words from French language

Ch - ie - f = chief

P - ie - ce = peace (French c is s before

           e or I)

 

 

- ef

ch + ef = chef

cl + ef = clef

- eef

b + eef = beef

r + eef = reef

 

- eaf (short)

d + eaf = deaf

- eaf

l + eaf = leaf

 

 - eath

d + eath = death

wr + eath = wreath

br + eath = breath

- eath (long)

sh + eath = sheath

 

 

- eathe

sh + eathe = sheath

br + eathe = breathe

 

- eg

b + eg = beg

p + eg = peg

l + eg = leg

k + eg = keg

M + eg = Meg

----------------------

dr + eg = dreg

 

 

- eck                     **

n + eck = neck

d + eck = deck

b + eck = beck

p + eck = peck

w + eck = weck

p + eck =  peck

-------------------------

ch + eck = check

sp + eck = speck

- eek

w + eek = week

p + eak = peak

s + eek = seek

m + eek = meek

----------------------

ch + eek = cheek

 

 

 

- eak (also spells long a)

b + eak = beak

p + eak = peak

l + eak = leak

----------------------

sn + eak = sneak

sp + eak = speak

str + eak = streak

squ + eak = squeak

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- el                                     **

t + ell = tell

d + ell = dell

b + ell = bell

h + ell = hell

s + ell = sell

w + ell = well

f + ell = fell

h + ell = hell

-----------------------

sm + ell = smell

sw + ell = swell

sh + ell = shell

dw + ell = dwell

qu + ell = quell

sp + ell = spell

- eel

k + eel = keel

f + eel = feel

p + eel = peel

h + eel = heel

-----------------

wh + eel = wheel

st + eel = steel

 

 

- eal    

t + eal = teal

d + deal = deal

s + eal = seal

w + eal = weal

h + eal = heal

p + eal = peal

m + eal = meal

------------------------

st + eal = steal

 

- elf

s + elf = self

sh + elf = shelf

 

 

- elt

f + elt = felt

b + elt = belt

m + elt = melt

p + elt = pelt

---------------------

kn + elt = knelt

sp + elt = spelt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- em

h + em = hem

g + em = gem

--------------------

th + em = them

st + em = stem

- eme

h + eme = heme

----------------------

th + eme = theme

 

 

- eam

b + eam = beam

s + seam = seam

t + team = team

-----------------------

dr + eam = dream

cr + eam = cream

scr + eam = scream

 

- en                            **

z + en = zen

B + en = Ben

m + en = men

p + en = pen

d + en = den

h + en = hen

t + en = ten

--------------------

th + en = then

wh + en = when

- ene

sc + ene = scene

 

 

- een

s + een = seen

k + een = keen

t + een = teen

------------------------

qu + een = queen

pr + een = preen

sh + een = sheen

gr + een = green

scr + een = screen

 

 

- ean

b + ean = bean

m + ean = mean

d + ean = dean

w + ean = wean

l + ean = lean

-------------------------

cl + ean = clean

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ep 

p + ep = pep

st + ep = step

- eep

k + eep = keep

p + eep = peep

j + eep = jeep

-------------------

sl + eep = sleep

sh + eep = sheep

cr + eep = creep

 

 

- eap

r + eap = reap

h + eap = heap

l + eap = leap

--------------------------

ch + eap = cheap

 

- end                            **

m + end = mend

b + end = bend

s + end = send

r + end = rend

t + end = tend

l + end = lend

------------------------

sp + end = spend

 

 

- ent

c + ent = cent  (French c before e)

t + ent = tent

s + ent = sent (different word)

b + ent = bent

w + went = went

d + ent = dent

v + ent = vent

 

 

- ench

b + ench = bench

-------------------------

Fr + ench - French

tr + ench = trench

st + ench = stench

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ear   (also long a; long a sound with r

 sounds like short e sound with r)

y + ear = year

n + ear = near

r + ear = rear

h + ear = hear

d + ear = dear

 

 

- eer

d + eer = deer

p + eer = peer

v + eer = veer

l + eer = leer

-----------------------

st + eer = steer

ch + eer = cheer

 

- ess

B + ess = Bess

T + ess = Tess

H + ess = Hess

l + ess = less

m + ess = mess

------------------------

dr + ess = dress

bl + ess = bless

str + ess = stress

gu + ess = guess

- ese

th + ese = these

 

 

- ease

l + ease = lease

t + ease = tease

c + ease = cease (French c before e)

--------------------------

pl + ease = please

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- et                       **

b + et = bet

v + et = vet

s + et = set

n + et = net

y + et = yet

- eet

m + eet = meet

k + eet = keet

f + eet = feet

---------------------

fl + eet = fleet

str + eet = street

sw + eet = street

 

- eat (short)

sw + eat = sweat

thr + eat = threat

- eat   (long)                        **

f + eat = feat

m + eat = meat

b + eat = beat

p + eat = peat

h + eat = heat

s + eat = seat

n + eat = neat

---------------------

ch + eat = cheat

wh + eat = wheat

tr + eat = treat

pl + eat = pleat

bl + eat = bleat

 

- est                         **

v + est = vest

b + est = best

n + est = nest

p + est = pest

r + est = rest

z + est = zest

f + est = fest

w + est = west

t + est = test

j + est = jest

-----------------------

cr + est = crest

bl + est = blest

gu + est = guest

qu + est = quest

wr + est = wrest

- east

f + east = feast

l + east = least

b + east = beast

y + east = yeast

 

- eft

l + eft = left

d + eft = deft

h + eft = heft

---------------------

th + eft = theft

cl + eft = cleft

 

 

- ept

k + ept = kept

w + ept = wept

sl + ept = slept

cr + ept = crept

 

 

- esh                             *

m + esh = mesh

-------------------------------

fr + esh = fresh

fl + esh = flesh

 

 

- edge

h + edge = hedge

l + edge = ledge

w + edge = wedge

--------------------------

sl + edge = sledge

dr + edge = dredge

 

 

- etch

f + etch = fetch

r + etch = retch

v + etch = vest

---------------------

sk + etch = sketch

- each

t + each = teach

r + each = reach

b + each = beach

 

- er

h + er = her

p + er = per

 

 

- erk

j + erk = jerk

p + erk = perk

 

 

- erm

g + erm = germ

t + erm = term

p + erm = perm

th + erm = therm

 

 

- ew   (like oo as in cool)         **

d + ew = dew

fl + ew = flew

cr + ew = crew

 

 

- ew (like long u as in cue)    **

f + ew = few

m + ew = mew

p + ew = pew

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ie

l + ie = lie

d + ie = die

t + ie = tie

p + ie = pie

 

 

- ye

b + ye = bye

d + ye = dye

-------------------

st + ye = stye

 

 

- igh                      **

s + igh = sigh

n + igh = nigh

h + igh = high

----------------------

th + igh = thigh

 

 

- y

b + y = by

m + y = my

cr + y = cry

sl + y = sly

dr + y = dry

fr + y = fry

sp + y = spy

tr + y = try

wh + y = why

spr + y = spry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- id

b + id = bid

d + id = did

k + id = kid

h + id = hid

l + id = lid

r + id = rid

----------------

sl + id = slid

- ide                 **

b + ide = bide

t + ide = tide

w + ide = wide

r + ide = ride

h + ide = hide

---------------------

sl + ide = slide

sn + ide = snide

br + ide = bride

pr + ide = pride

str + ide = stride

ch + ide = chide

gl + ide - glide

 

 

- ide

t + ied = tied

p + ied = pied

d + ied = died

l + ied = lied

---------------

cr + ied = cried

tr + ied = tried

 

- ib

r + ib = rib

f + ib = fib

s + ib = sib

d + ib = dib

b + ib = bib

----------------------

cr + ib = crib

- ibe

tr + ibe = tribe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- iff   (only if is spelled if)

t + iff

b + iff = biff

------------------

wh + iff = whiff

sk + iff = skiff

cl + iff = cliff

sn + iff = sniff

- ife

l + ife = life

w + ife = wife

f + ife = fife

r + ife = rife

--------------

str + ife = strife

kn + ife = knife

 

- ick                     **

(ik not found in one syllable words)

l + ick = lick

p + ick = pick

r + ick = rick

s + ick = sick

t + ick = tick

n + ick = nick

R + ick = Rick

D + ick = Rick

--------------------

tr + ick = trick

th + ick = thick

br + ick = brick

st + ick = stick

ch + ick = chick

qu + ick = quick

- ike                    **

l + ike = like

p + ike = pike

M + ike = mike

d + ike = dike

b + ike = bike

-----------------

sp + ike = spike

str + ike = strike

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ill

t + il = til

n + il = nil

Ph + il = phil

 

 

- ill     (rhymes with ale)          **

t + ill = till

w + ill = will

m + ill = mill

p + ill = pill

h + ill = hill

b + ill = bill

d + ill = dill

g + ill = gill

k + ill = kill

-----------------------

st + ill = still

gr + ill = grill

ch + ill = chill

fr + ill = frill

sk + ill = skill

sp + ill = spill

thr + ill = thrill

tw + ill = twill

- ile

f + ile = file

t + ile = tile

r + ile = rile

m + ile = mile

p + ile = pile

N + ile = Nile

-------------------

sm + ile = smile

 

- ilt

k + ilt = kilt

h + ilt = hilt

s + ilt = silt

j + ilt = jilt

t + ilt = tilt

---------------

qu + ilt = quilt

gu + ilt = guilt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- im

d + im = dim

r + im = rim

h + im  = him

v + im = vim

T + im - Tim

K + im = Kim

----------------------

sw + im = swim

tr + im = trim

pr + im = prim

gr + im = grim

- ime

d + ime = dime

t + ime = time

l + ime = lime

-------------------------

pr + ime = prime

cr + ime = crime

gr + ime = grime

 

 

- in                      **

t + in = tin

b + in = bin

d + in = din

p + in = pin

s + in = sin

w + in = win

k + in = kin
f + in = fin

---------------------

tw + in = twin

sp + in = spin

sh + in = shin

ch + in = chin

gr + in = grin

sk + in = skin

- ine                         **

t + ine = tine

d + ine = dine

p + ine = pine

w + ine = wine

f + ine = fine

m + ine = mine

n + ine = nine

l + ine = line

v + ine = vine

---------------------

br + ine = brine

sh + ine = shine

sw + ine = swine

sh + ine = shine

 

- ip                       **

d + ip = dip

r + ip = rip

l + ip = lip

n + ip = nip

t + ip = tip

---------------------

sh + ip = ship

tr + ip = trip

sl + ip = slip

sn + ip = snip

sk + ip = skip

str + ip = strip

ch + ip = chip

gr + ip = grip

dr + ip = drip

fl + ip = flip

bl + ip = blip

-ipe                 **

r + ipe = ripe

p + ipe = pipe

w + ipe = wipe

------------------------

tr + ipe = tripe

sn + ipe = snipe

str + ipe = stripe

sw + ipe = swipe

 

 

- is

h + is = his

th + is = this

 

 

- iss

k + iss = kiss

m + iss = miss

bl + iss = bliss

pr + iss = priss

- ice                 **

n + ice = nice

r + ice = rice

v + ice = vice

m + ice = mice

d + ice = dice

------------------------------

sp + ice = spice

spl + ice = splice

tw + ice = twice

tr + ice = trice

thr + ice = thrice

pr + ice = price

 

 - it                            **

b + it = bit

s + it = sit

h + it = hit

p + it = pit

l + it = lit

f + it = fit

k + it = kit

w + it = wit

----------------------

sp + it = spit

qu + it = quit

fl + it = flit

tw + it = twit

kn + it = knit

fl + it = flit

sl + it = slit

spl + it = split

- ite                      **

b + ite = bite

s + ite = site

l + ite = lite

k + ite = kite

m + ite = mite

r + ite = rite

--------------------

sp + ite = spite

qu + ite = quite

wh + ite = white

sm + ite = smite

wr + ite = write

 

 

 

- ight                    **

s + ight = sight

l + ight = light

f + ight = fight

t + ight = tight

m + ight = might

n + ight = night

r + ight = right

-------------------------

kn + ight = knight

bl + ight = blight

br + ight = bright

 

 

- ive

j + ive = jive

h + hive = hive

f + ive = five

l + ive = live (long I)

-----------------

dr + ive = drive

str + ive = strive

 

- ix

s + ix = six

m + ix = mix

p + ix = pix

f + ix = fix

 

 

- ift

l + ift = lift

g + ift = gift

s + ift = sift

------------------

sh + ift = shift

sw + ift = swift

 

 

- isk

r + isk = risk

t + isk = tisk

d + isk = disk

-------------------

fr + isk = frisk

br + isk = brisk

 

 

- ist

m + ist = mist

l + ist = list

f + ist = fist

-------------------

gr + ist = grist

wr + ist = wrist

 

 

- ind (short)

w + ind = wind

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ind (long)

f + ind = find

h + ind = hind

k + ind = kind

b + ind = bind

r + ind = rind

m + ind = mind

------------------------

bl + ind = blind

 

 

 

 

- imp

w + imp = wimp

l + imp = limp

---------------------

bl + imp = blimp

cr + imp = crimp

shr + imp = shrimp

 

 

- int

m + int = mint

h + int = hint

t + int = tint

--------------------

fl + int = flint

st + int = stint

 

 

- ince

s + ince = since

m + ince = mince

w + ince = wince

--------------------

pr + ince = prince

qu + ince = quince

 

 

- inge

h + inge = hinge

s + inge = singe

t + inge = tinge

----------------------

cr + inge = cringe

fr + inge = fringe

 

 

R + inse = rinse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ish

w + ish - wish

f + ish = fish

d + ish = dish

----------------------

sw + ish = swish

Tr + ish = Trish

 

 

- ich

r + ich = rich

wh + ich = which

 

 

- itch

h + itch = hitch

w + itch = witch

d + itch = ditch

p + itch = pitch

-----------------------

st + itch = stitch

tw + itch = twitch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ig                          **

p + ig = pig

d + ig = dig

r + ig = rig

g + ig = gig

b + ig = big

w + ig = wig

f + ig = fig

-----------------------

pr + ig = prig

tw + ig = twig

wh + ig = whig

 

 

- ink                            **

p + ink = pink

l + ink = link

m + ink = mink

r + ink = rink

s + ink = sink

------------------------

th + ink = think

bl + ink = blink

dr + ink = drink

st + ink = stink

sl + ink = slink

ch + ink = chink

br + ink = brink

cl + ink - clink

shr + ink = shrink

 

 

- ing                           **

r + ing = ring

s + ing = sing

k + ing = ping

w + ing = wing

p + ing = ping

d + ing = ding

b + ing = bing

-----------------

br + ing = bring

sw + ing = swing

st + ing = sting

th + ing = thing

str + ing = string

spr + ing = spring

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ir

s + ir = sir

f + ir = fir

st + ir = stir

wh + ir = whir

- ire

f + ire = fire

s + ire = sire

t + ire = tire

h + ire = hire

w + ire = wire

sp + spire = spire

 

-ir - m

f + irm = firm

 

 

-ir -d

b + ird = bird

 

 

-irt

d + irt = dirt

-------------------

sk + irt = skirt

fl + irt = flirt

squ + irt = squirt

 

 

-irl

g + irl - girl

wh + irl - whirl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-o

g + o = go

s + o = so

 

 

-oe

t + oe = toe

h + oe = hoe

r + oe = roe

f + oe = foe

w + oe = woe

--------------------

fl + oe = floe

 

- ob                    **

j + ob = job

c + ob = cob

s + ob = sob

b + ob = bob

l + ob = lob

---------------

sn + ob = snob

bl + ob = blob

kn + ob = knob

thr + ob = throb

- obe

l + obe = lobe

r + obe = robe

-------------------

str + obe = strobe

pr + obe = probe

 

- od                   **

g + od = god

p + od = pod

r + od = rod

s + od = sod

T + od = Tod

c + od = cod

n + od = nod

----------------------

sn + od = snod

cl + od = clod

tr + od = trod

pr + od = prod

- ode

r + ode = rode

c + ode = code

n + ode = node

b + ode = bode

l + ode = lode

m + ode = mode

-----------------------

str + ode = strode

 

 

- oad

r + oad = road

t + oad = toad

g + oad = goad 

l + oad = load

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ock                       **

h + ock = hock

l + ock = lock

d + ock = dock

s + ock = sock

m + ock = mock

t + ock = tock

r + ock = rock

--------------------------------

bl + ock = block

kn + ock = knock

cl + ock = clock

sh + ock = shock

fl + ock = flock

sm + ock = smock

st + ock = stock

fr + ock = frock

cr + ock = crock

- ook                                    **

h + ook = hook

l + ook = look

t + ook = took

r + ook = look

b + ook = book

n + ook = nook

c + ook = cook

-----------------------

sh + ook = shook

cr + ook = crook

 

 

 

- oak                                    **

s + oak = soak

---------------------

cl + oak = cloak

cr + oak = croak

 

 

- oke                                  **

j + oke = joke

w + oke = woke

p + oke = poke

y + oke = yoke

c + oke = coke

-----------------------

sm + oke = smoke

br + oke = broke

ch + oke = choke

sp + oke = spoke

str + oke = stroke

bl + oke = bloke

 

- om                         *

p + om = pom

T + om = Tom

- ome

h + ome = home

d + ome = dome

t + ome = tome

R + ome = Rome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- og                      *

f + og = fog

b + og = bog

h + og = hog

c + og = cog

l + og = log

d + og = dog

--------------------------

cl + og = clog

fl + og = flog

fr + og = frog

 

 

 

-ole

h + ole = hole

p + ole = pole

r + ole = role

m + ole = mole

d + ole = dole

---------------------

st + ole = stole

 

- oll

d + oll = doll

- oll

t + oll = toll

p + oll = poll

b + oll = boll

r + oll = roll

----------------

tr + oll = troll

dr + oll = droll

str + oll = stroll

 

 

- oal

c + oal = coal

f + oal = foal

g + oal = goal

 

 

- one

p + one = pone

b + one = bone

t + one = tone

c + one = cone

------------------------

dr + one = drone

ph + one = phone

st + one = stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- op                       **

p + op = pop

t + op = top

b + op = bop

c + op = cop

s + op = sop

h + op = hop

m + op = mop

p + op = pop

-------------------

cr + op = crop

st + op = stop

dr + op = drop

sh + op = shop

ch + op = chop

- ope

p + ope = pope

c + ope = cope

h + ope = hope

m + ope = mope

p + ope = pope

r + ope = rope

 

- oss

t + oss = toss

m + oss = moss

l + oss = loss

R + oss = Ross

-----------------------

fl + oss = floss

- ose

h + ose = hose

r + ose  = rose

-----------------------

th + ose = those

 

- ot                      **

d + ot = dot

l + ot = lot

n + ot = not

c + ot = cot

g + ot = got

h + ot = hot

j + ot = jot

r + ot = rot

s + ot = sot

------------------------

sh + ot = shot

sl + ot = slot

sp + ot = spot

kn + ot = knot

cl + ot = clot

tr + ot = trot

- ote                   **

d + ote = dote

t + ote = tote

r + ote = rote

m + ote = mote

n + ote = note

v + ote = vote

 

 

 

- oat

c + oat = coat

b + oat = boat

g + oat = goat

----------------------

thr + oat = throat

fl + oat = float

 

 

- ove

c + ove = cove

d + ove = dove

-------------------------

dr + ove = drove

st + ove = stove

 

- ox

b + ox = box

p + ox = pox

f + ox = fox

 

 

- ond

p + ond = pond

f + ond = fond

b + ond = bond

------------------------

fr + ond = frond

bl + ond = blond

 

 

- ong

l + ong = long

s + ong = song

t + ong = tong

b + ong = bong

----------------------------

pr + ong = prong

wr + ong = wrong

th + ong = thong

str + ong = strong

thr + ong = throng

 

 

- oth (short)

m + oth = moth

---------------

cl + oth = cloth

fr + oth = froth

 

 

- ost (short)

c + ost = cost

- ost                      *

m + ost = most

p + ost = post

 

 

- oast

c + oast = coast

t + oast = toast

r + oast = roast

 

- ought

f + ought = fought

br + ought = brought

th + ought = thought

 

 

 

 

 

 

- out                    **

p + out = pout

r + out = rout

-----------------------------

sh + out = shout

sn + out = snout

sc + out = scout

tr + out = trout

sp + out = spout

gr + out = grout

spr + out = sprout

 

 

- ouse

m + ouse = mouse

l + ouse = louse

h + ouse = house

d + ouse = douse

r + ouse = rouse

 

 

- ound

h + ound = hound

s + ound = sound

r + ound = round

b + ound = bound

p + ound = pound

w + ound = wound

----------------------------

gr + ound = ground

- ound  (oo)

w + ound = wound

 

- ow (short)                   **

b + ow = bow

c + ow = cow

h + ow = how

n + ow = now

---------------------

br + ow = brow

pr + ow = prow

ch + ow = chow

- ow (long)                       **

b + ow = bow (two different words)

t + ow = tow

-----------------------------------------

sh + ow = show

sn + ow = snow

bl + ow = blow

cr + ow = crow

kn + ow = know

gr + ow = grow

sn + ow = snow

thr + ow = thr

 

 

- old

c + old = cold

b + old = bold

s + old = sold

h + old = hold

g + old = gold

-------------------------

sc + old = scold

 

- own (short)

d + own = down

t + own = town

---------------------------

cl + own = clown

cr + own = crown

dr + own = drown

br + own = brown

- own (long)

s + own = sown

-------------------------

thr + own = thrown

kn + own = known

sh + own = shown

bl + own = blown

gr + own = grown

 

- ove

d + ove = dove

l + ove = love

gl + ove = glove

sh + ove = shove

- ove

m + ove = move

pr + ove = prove

 

- on

w + on = won

s + on = son

t + on = ton

 

 

- one

n + one = none

d + one = done

 

 

- ood

bl + ood = blood

fl + ood = flood

- ood

f + ood = food

m + ood = mood

-------------------------

sn + ood = snood

br + ood = brood

 

 

- ood

g + ood = good

w + ood = wood

h + ood = hood

--------------------

st + ood = stood

 

 

- oot

b + oot = boot

t + oot = toot

c + oot = coot

r + oot = root

-------------------------

sh + oot = shoot

 

 

- oot

f + oot = foot

 

 

- ould

c + ould = could

w + ould = would

---------------------------

sh + ould = should

 

 

-oo

z + oo = zoo

t + oo = too

b + oo = boo

m + oo = moo

-------------------

ch + oo = choo

 

 

- ool                          **

p + ool = pool

t + ool = tool

c + ool = cool

f + ool = fool

-----------------------

sp + ool = spool

sch + ool = school

 

 

Wool

 

 

- oom

b + oom = boom

d + oom = doom

l + oom = loom

z + oom = zoom

----------------------------

bl + oom = bloom

br + oom = broom

 

 

- oon

s + oon = soon

n + oon = noon

c + oon = coon

b + oon = boon

---------------------------------

sp + oon = spoon

sw + oon = swoon

 

 

- oop

c + oop = coop

h + oop = hoop

p + oop = poop

---------------------------

tr + oop = troop

sc + oop = scoop

st + oop = stoop

sn + oop = snoop

 

 

- oose

g + oose = goose

l + oose = loose

m + oose = moose

 

 

 

 

- ough

r + ough = rough

t + ough = tough

e + n + ough = enough

- ough

d + ough = dough

th + ough = though

 

- ough

b + ough = bough

- ough

thr + ough = through

 

 

- or

- f + or = for

 

 

- oor

 p + oor = poor

d + door = door

m + oor = moor

------------

sp + oor = spoor

fl + oor = floor

 

 

- ore                      **

b + ore = bore

c + ore = core

f + ore = fore

g + ore = gore

m + ore = more

s + ore = sore

w + ore = wore

---------------------------

ch + ore = chore

sc + ore = score

sp + ore = spore

sw + ore = swore

sn + ore = snore

st + ore = store

sh + ore = shore

 

 

- oar

b + oar = boar

s + oar = soar

r + oar = roar

 

- our

s + our = sour

d + our = dour

- our

f + our = four

p + our = pour

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- orn

b + orn = born

h + orn = horn

c + orn = corn

m + orn = morn

t + orn = torn

w + orn =worn

-------------------

sc + orn = scorn

th + orn = thorn

sh + orn = shorn

 

 

- ort

p + ort = port

s + ort = sort

f + ort = fort

t + ort = tort

-----------------------

sh + ort = short

sp + ort = sport

 

 

- orch

p + orch = porch

t + orch = torch

---------------------------

sc + orch = scorch

 

 

- oy                             **

b + oy = boy

c + oy = coy

t + oy = toy

s + oy = soy

Tr + oy = Troy

 

 

- oil                               **

f + oil = foil

c + oil = coil

b + oil = boil

s + oil = soil

---------------------------

sp + oil = spoil

br + oil = broil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ue

d + ue = due

s + ue = sue

-----------------------

bl + ue = blue

fl + ue = flue

gl + ue = glue

tr + ue = true

 

- ub                            **

c + ub = cub

l + ub = lub

r + ub = rub

t + ub = tub

s + ub = sub

h + ub = hub

-----------------------

gr + ub = grub

st + ub = stub

cl + ub = club

sn + ub = snub

scr + ub = scrub

- ube                              **

c + ube = cube

l + ube = lube

t + ube = tube

 

 

- ud                               **

b + ud = bud

d + ud = dud

c + ud = cud

m + ud = mud

-------------------------

sp + ud = spud

st + ud = stud

- ude

d + ude = dude

r + ude = rude

n + ude = nude

 

- uff

c + uff = cuff

d + uff = duff

p + uff = puff

---------------------------

st + uff = stuff

bl + uff = bluff

sc + uff = scuff

fl + uff = fluff

 

 

- up                           **

c + up = cup

p + up = pup

s + up = sup

y + up = yup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- uck                         **

l + uck = luck

b + uck = buck

d + uck = duck

m + uck = muck

p + uck = puck

s + uck - suck

----------------------

tr + uck = truck

pl + uck = pluck

cl + uck = cluck

sh + uck = shuck

st + uck = stuck

str + uck = struck

- uke

d + uke = duke

n + uke = nuke

L + uke = Luke

 

- ug                                   **

b + ug = bug

l + ug = lug

m + ug = mug

p + ug = pug

d + ug = dug

r + ug = rug

t + ug = tug

h + ug = hug

j + ug = jug

--------------------

dr + ug = drug

sm + ug = smug

th + ug = thug

shr + ug = shrug

- uge

h + uge = huge

 

- um                                 **

m + um = mum

r + um = rum

g + um = gum

----------------------

ch + um = chum

dr + um = drum

str + um = strum

- ume

f + ume = fume

----------------------------

pl + ume = plume

 

- un                                   **

f + un = fun

s + un = sun

g + un = gun

r + un = run

b + un = bun

------------------------

sp + un = spun

st + un = stun

- une

r + une = rune

t + une = tune

 

- up                             **

c + up = cup

p + up = pup

y + up = yup
s + up = sup

 

 

- uss

f + uss = fuss

R + uss = Russ

- use

f + use = fuse

m + use = muse

r + use = ruse

 

- us

b + us = bus

 

 

- ut                               **

b + ut = but

c + ut = cut

h + ut = hut

n + ut = nut

r + ut = rut

t + ut = tut

------------------

sh + ut = shut

- ute

c + ute = cute

m + ute = mute

l + ute = lute

-----------------

ch + ute = chute

 

 

- uit

s + uit = suit

fr + uit = fruit

 

- umb

n + umb = numb

d + umb = dumb

--------------------------

th + umb = thumb

cr + umb = crumb

 

 

- ump                            **

j + ump = jump

b + umb = bump

d + ump = dump

h + ump = hump

r + ump = rump

l + ump = lump

p + ump = pump

------------------------

st + ump = stump

ch + ump = chump

tr + ump = trump

sl + ump = slump

th + ump = thump

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- unk                            **

b + unk = bunk

h + unk = hunk

d + unk = dunk

j + unk = junk

p + unk = punk

s + unk = sunk

-------------------------

ch + unk = chunk

cl + unk = clunk

fl + unk = flunk

sk + unk = skunk

sl + ump = slump

sp + unk = spunk

dr + unk = drunk

 

 

- unt

h + hunt = hunt

st + unt = stunt

gr + unt = grunt

bl + unt = blunt

sh + unt = shunt

 

 

- ust

j + ust = just

d + ust = dust

b + ust = bust

r + ust = rust

-------------------

cr + ust = crust

tr + ust = trust

thr + ust = thrust

 

 

- ush                           **

h + ush = hush

r + ush = rush

m + ush = mush

-------------------------

br + ush = brush

bl + ush = blush

thr + ush = thrush

 

 

- uch

s + uch = such

m + uch = much

 

 

- utch

h + utch = hutch

cl + utch = clutch

D + utch = Dutch

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ule

m + ule = mule

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- ull

f + ull = full

c + ull = cull

p + ull = pull

d + ull = dull

g + ull = gull

l + ull = lull

b + ull = bull

----------------------

sk + ull = skull

 

- ur

f + ur = fur

c + ur = cur

bl + ur = blur

sp + ur = spur

 

 

- urt

B + urt = Burt

c + urt = curt

h + urt = hurt

sp + urt = spurt

 

 

- url

c + url = curl

h + url = hurl

f + url = furl

ch + url = churl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard th

 

Three

Thrice

Third

thin

thumb

smith

Soft th

 

the

that

this

them

those

other

 

Ph as f

 

Phil

elephant

 

 

Final gh as f

 

Enough

Laugh

Cough

Rough

Tough

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Words that end in le

 

Little

Apple

Puzzle

Muzzle

Startle

Nimble

Scruple

Supple

Thumble

Crumble

Thimble

Nibble

Bumble

Rumble

Ramble

Smuggle

 

Words that end in er

 

Ladder

 Kidder

Miller

Hopper

Mopper

Tiller

Summer

 

Tricker

Dresser

Thinker

Tinker

Bringer

Hinder

Winter

pitcher

 

Later

Taker

Baker

Maker

Slower

Lower

Brother

Mother

Father

 

 

Words that end in y

 

Mommy

Tommy

Daddy

Sally

Pretty

Silly

Billy

Willy

Milly

Happy

crappy

Kitty

Puppy

Candy

Handy

Dandy

Randy

Mandy

Pandy

Baby

Lady

Fraidy

daisy

Sneaky

Leaky

Mopy

Mighty

Plucky

Mucky

Chummy

Rummy

Sunny

Funny

Runny

Fussy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Past tense words ending in d and ed

 

The past tense of many verbs is formed by adding d or ed to the end.

In words that end in y, the y changes to ied.   In many words with short vowels and one final consonant, the consonant is doubled.   

 

Grip                   gripped

Rip                     ripped

Trip                    tripped

Rot                     rotted

Pot                      potted

Spot                   spotted

 

Rest                    rested

Test                     tested

Lick                    licked

Trick                   tricked

Nick                    nicked

Leap                   leaped

Heap                   heaped

 

Mope                 moped

Rope                  roped

Cope                  coped

Bake                   baked

Rake                   raked

File                     filed

Pile                     piled

Like                    liked

 

Will                    willed

Thank                 thanked

 

Carry                  carried

Marry                 married

Party                   partied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plurals  and third person singular present tense verbs

 

More than one of a word is often signified by adding -s or -es to the end of the word.   This rule also applies to the she/ he/ it form of most verbs.   

 

If a word ends in y, the y changes to ies

 

Cat                 cats

Rat                  rats

Bat                  bats

Ship                ships

Day                 days

Boy                 boys

Toy                 toys

Bird                birds

 

Hose               hoses

Dike                dikes

Flame              flames

 

Hit                   hits

Run                 runs

Rip                  rips

Tip                  tips

Skip                skips

Shop                shops

Stop                 stops

Thank              thanks

Think               thinks

Fling               flings

Sings               sings

Bring               brings

Play                 plays

 

Care               cares

Stare              stares

Dare               dares

 

Marry            marries

Tarry             tarries

Parry             parries

Try                tries

Cry                cries

Dry                dries

 

Baby             babies

Puppy           puppies

Party             parties

Mommy        mommies

Daddy           daddies

 

 

Final ing

 

Ing is added to words with short vowels by doubling the final consonant if there was only one consant.

 

Sing  ---à  singing

Bring        bringing

Think       thinking

Bring        bringing

Thank       thanking

Bless        blessing

Fuss          fussing

Start         starting

Hop          hopping

Mop         mopping

Nip           nipping

Tip           tipping

Win          winning

Sin            sinning

Pin            pinning

Fib            fibbing

Put            putting

Cut           cutting

 

 

I

Ing is added to words with silent e by removing the silent e.

 

Make       making

Bake        baking

Take        taking

Tape        taping

Smile      smiling

Tape        taping

Scrape     scraping

Come       coming

Change    changing

Dare        daring

Stare        staring

Care         caring

 

Ing is added to syllables with long vowels without silent e by just adding ing.

 

Know   knowing

Snow    snowing

Show    showing

Do        doing

Wait      waiting

Bait       baiting    

 

 

Marry      marrying

Tarry        tarrying

Parry        parrying

 

 

 

 

Common words that are not spelled phonetically

 

Many very common words have changed the way that they are pronounced, in such ways that they are no longer pronounced the way they are spelled, or they are pronounced in ways consistent with their spelling but differently than most other words that are spelled with the same groups of letters.   These words have to simply be learned.  

 

a, an

than

many

are

was

of

aunt (pronounced two ways)

been

bush, push

put

come

done

mother

dozen

do, to

does

today

two

give, live

catch

watch

brother

daughter (belongs to a small word family)

father

wash

wasp

friend

dealt

said

plaid

real  

both

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mysterious spelling of "Michael"

 

MIKHAEL (Hebrew)

That's M - I - KHA - EL 

 

That kh sound does not exist in modern English.   

 

The name "Michael" comes from the Hebrew language.   Hebrew was the language that people spoke in ancient Israel, and it is the language that the Old Testament part of the Bible is written in.  

 

English does not contain many words that came from the Hebrew language, and most of them are proper names, like Michael, and Deborah.  

 

This word seriously morphed.

 

Hebrew has a soft "K" sound spelled in the international phonetic alphabet "KH".   The Hebrew alphabet has a letter for the kh sound.   

 

The name "Michael" entered English by way of the Latin, French, and early English languages, which is confusing enough.   

 

Early English was a Germanic language.   Germanic languages had a kh sound, and they had no alphabet.   They adopted the Roman alphabet, which we still use.   The Roman alphabet has no letter for ch, and no letter for kh.   The Roman language, Latin, had no kh sound, and no ch sound.    However, most Roman people could speak and write the Greek language, because it was spoken all over the Near East and it was the language of cultured activity like literature, in Rome.   For instance, people in Jesus' homeland spoke a common sort of Greek that people in Rome also understood, rather than Latin, even though Jesus' homeland was part of the Roman Empire.    Greek had a ch sound that in the Greek alphabet was spelled with a letter for the ch sound, so Romans were used to adapting.   They adapted it funny, as well; the Roman language absorbed many Greek words, and the ch sound tended to become a k.   What is more, the Germanic languages were changing many kh sounds to the ch sound.   So the German peoples spelled the kh sound "ch" no matter how they pronounced it.  

 

Modern English has no "kh" sound, no "kh spelling, and no letter for "kh".   Most "kh" sounds morphed into "ch" or "k".   

 

But over time the sounds spelled "ch" in the German language family changed.   Some of them are still pronounced "kh" in modern German, but often they changed over time into "K".  

 

In English, the vast majority of "kh" sounds  that were spelled "ch" changed into the modern "ch" sound, like in "child", or "chair".   

 

However, Michael kept the ch spelling, while the sound changed from kh to k.     Hence, the k sound in Michael is spelled ch, which is highly unusual in modern English.

 

Most other words in modern English where the ch sound is pronounced like a k, like "Bach" (a famous German composer of music), and "loch" (Scottish word for a lake) came from Scotland or Germany.   

 

Now to explain why "ael" is pronounced like "el" or "le".    Vowels tend to get simpler over time.   That is why the, a, and an do not sound the way they are spelled.    Mi - kh - a - el takes time and effort to say.    Even in Hebrew the name is often both pronounced and spelled "Mikhel", especially when the name was given to a human being instead of an angel.   Originally the "el" got stress, in mi -kha - el, because in Hebrew a vowel can never directly follow another; and because two words were stuck together to make the name, and "el" means a god.   Michael means, "Messenger of God" - and in the Bible, he was one of the foour archangels that showed up from time to time with messages from God.       

 

But noone in Europe bothered to emphasize the "El" in the name.    While the kh became k, the a-el became "el".

 

So that is why the name Michael is pronounced "Mikel".   

 

Another word where the ch morphed into a k is "Christ", which was originally Greek.   Greek had a "ch" letter that they pronounced like the modern English ch!     But then the word was adopted into the language of the Roman empire and became a k.   Except everyone knew it was originally spelled ch, so it became in English, ch pronounced "k".  

Email me at tiggernut24@yahoo.com