Djuvec variations, recipes and history

 

Djuvec (pronounced juvetch) is a generic type of baked dish

 that spread from Turkey through the Balkans, and from there

 to the rest of Central and Eastern Europe. Turkish word

guvec is pronounced ghuvetch, juvetch, or gyuvetch.  The

Turks took similar ingredients and recipe ideas to other

regions of the Mediterranean.  They carried rice from India,

 and tomatoes and peppers that were newly arrived from the

New World from Spain, to the other regions they had contact

 with.   The word djuvec, which has spelling variations and

minor variations in pronunciation, originated in Turkey and

 in the Turkish languages means large clay baking pot.

 

It was originally a savory or spiced dish made with meat

and vegetables, baked in a large clay pot in a medium oven.

 It originated in the pan-Altaic word for a clay cooking pot.

  It was usually flavored by the clay pot, and by the onions,

 peppers, parsley, garlic, salt and any other spices.

 

Yugoslavian version, which spread to Czechoslovakia and Austria,

 stresses rice and tomatoes.   Can be made many ways but often

 layered.  Like all of Central Europe, Yugoslavia also has

many similar casseroles that are djuvec but aren't called

djuvec, called things like peppers with rice and meat instead.

 

   My mother's version is bland partly because it is Czech.

 The dish is usually spiced up a little with a fair amount of

 peppers and onion, some parsley and some garlic and sometimes

other spices as well, either mixed in the whole dish or used to

 flavor the meat.     

 

The Texas Czechs who seem to have compiled these recipes for

this part of the United States, appear to have come

 into contact with people and recipes from Louisiana, which

 happenned alot in Texas, and mixed up their own traditional

 ingredients with those from Louisiana!  I saw one version of

dzuvec in a Texas Czech cookbook that was called gumbo and

not djuvec, and used ham for the meat.  

 

I have a separate page on Hungarian goulash, which is

sometimes wrongly associated with djuvec.  Goulash has a

very different history, it is a true stew, and it was

always made in a kettle and not baked in the oven.  The

word goulash, which also is found all over the Balkans

and Eastern Europe (gulass), may have originated in Hungary

and have to do with the fact that Turkish janissaries in teh

Balkans, Eastern and Central Europe cooked this dish.

Goulash was made by nomadic shepherds living in that region

for thousands of years; originally from cubes of dried beef

that had been simmered with onions, and dried noodles.

 

Shepherds out with their flocks would drop these ingredients

into a kettle over the fire and simmer to make a shepherd's

stew.  Paprika and other peppers got added in the 16th and

17th centuries; they were brought by the Turks from Spain.

Tomatoes may only have been added a century ago and still most

often are not added at all.   Goulash in its native lands most

often contains only beef, noodles, onions, paprika and sometimes

wine.   

 

A dish that most North Americans (not those living in regions

where there are actual Hispanic people) call Spanish rice,

ie, the recipe for Spanish rice that is found in the Betty

Crocker, Better Homes and Gardens and Fanny Farmer cookbooks,

has vague origins.  It is neither the Spanish rice common around

the Mexican border, nor a sort of rice common in Spain.  Spain

got rice from the Moors, and adopted much of their cooking with it.

They have a dish made from short or medium grained rice that is similar

to dvuvetch and cooked in a skillet - it contains a variety of

meats, seafood and vegetables.    Similar

dishes are known in parts of Spain but aren't often associated

with Spain and Spain's versions of what they think is Spanish

rice don't remotely resemble what most Americans call Spanish

rice.  True Spanish rice, like true red rice, contains no

tomatoes, and/or it contains many other vegetables.  

 

I've had people try to tell me my mother's version of djuvech

is Spanish rice, and I have not elsewhere met anything that

resembles it in the United States.   The dish

most often called spanish rice in teh U.S. more likely is descended

from creole and African dishes that became popular in the southeastern

U.S.   It certainly bears complete resembances to those dishes.  

Original names include red rice, jolloff, and jambalaya.  Creole

cookery is a mixture of French, Spanish, and African; all of those

groups lived in Louisiana and Florida and contributed to creole

culture and cooking.

 

See my page on Spanish rice.  

 

-----------------------------------

 

Romania - ghiveci

Bulgaria - same w different pronunciation

 

Cyprus - yiouvetsi

Czechoslovakia - dzuvec, spread across Austro-Hungarian empire from Serbia

Serbia - dzuvec and djuvec

Bosnia - djuvec

Turkey - guvec/ guvecci, short vowel sound over g, squiggle under c, two dots over u.

 

    pronounced according to various sources gyuvech or juvech

 

Turkey: (Magisterial redhouse dictionary)  1. earthenware cooking pot.

 

  2. vegetables and meat cooked in an earthenware cooking pot.

 

  (Derived from the word for a large clay cooking pot)

Turkey:  Meat vegetable stew, or meat vegetable stew

 

Serbia:  1. djuvece  -eta stew (made of lamb and vegetables)  2. pan

for making stew."

 

Cyprus:  "Yiouvetsi is one of several recipes that takes their name

from the dish actually used in cooking. The "yiouvetsi" is a large,

usually round, deep clay dish. This recipe may be made in any oven-proof

 baking dish, but clay or earthenware is preferred, as it imparts a

delicious, earthy aroma to the stew."

 

Bulgarian   gyuvech

Serbo-Croat djuvec

Albanian    gjuvec

Moldova     givech

Azeri       guvac

Greek       giuvetsi

 

These vessels of earthenware casserole are found all over

the Balkans and are used for cooking almost anything of a

savory nature, including fish as well as meat, poultry and

game dishes.

 

 

>The best djuvech [Jew-vetch] I ever had was in Novi Pazar in Tito's

>Yugoslavia.  The word is from Turkish: gjevec.  A dictionary of

>Turkisms in the speech of Balkan Slavs says: "pieces of meat mixed

>with onion, rice, potatoes, or the like, made in an earthen pot."

(from Dr. Kolsti, Slavic language professor at UT)

 

Hi Dora;

 

I searched the word in the Turkish Linguistic Institution Books & found

nothing. Then I sent an e-mail; to which your mail attached; to the

institution. I let you know the answer as soon as I got it (If I colud have

 

any:)

 

Cheers

Hakan

 

 

Dora,

 

the word origin is Turkish  yes, and sounds like ghuvetch in

English

 

Bulgarian   gyuvech

Serbo-Croat djuvec

Albanian    gjuvec

Moldova     givech

Azeri       guvac

Greek       giuvetsi

 

 

These vessels of earthenware casserole are found all over

the Balkans and are used for cooking almost anything of a

savory nature, including fish as well as meat, poultry and

game dishes.

 

 

Hungarian Goulash is the early form of this dish in Eastern Europe which

was derived from the Turkish saying "kul a$I" (kul ashI) meaning "food for

janissaries" prepared for the Ottoman jannisaries. Later it was developed

with the above mentioned clay pots/dishes thru out the empire where

hearty foods like this became very popular.

 

 

The Culinaire Mechanic

 

I dont know what the exact meaning of Güveç is, but I recall my

grandfather calling me that the name "güveç" comes from Güvenç Abdal

or Genç Abdal (A Bektashi saint). He was the first man to cook this

meal. In Bektashi "legends" there are many saints who cooked a meal

for the first time. For example we don't say "pilav" to rice meal, but

"Kaygusuz". Kaygusuz Abdal is also very known Bektashi saint. He wrote

a very famous poem about eating and cooking habits.

 

This one is from the homepage of Gökhan Perçin.

 

(http://www.stanford.edu/~percin/Bektashi.html)

 

There is another legend about Abdal Musa Sultan (master of Kaygusuz

Abdal) and Budala Abdal (fellow of Kaygusuz Abdal). Budala Abdal was

responsible for the kitchen of the "dergah" of Abdal Musa in Elmali.

One day he couldnt find enough wood to set a fire in order to cook the

meal. So he put his feet in the fire and let the meal cook. Abdal Musa

saw him and said "What are you doing? Are you insane (budala)?"

In every Bektashi dergah there was a dervish who was responsible for

cooking (asçi baba). In the course of time the Bektashis developed

very rich culture of cooking. (gourmet, gusto, cuisine; whatever you

call it)

 

Another possible root of the word "Güveç" could be the verb "gögermek"

or "güvermek" which means "becoming red".

 

Excuse me,

The verb "gögermek" doesn't mean becoming red. It means "becoming

blue or colorful".

So it cannot be linked to the word "güveç".

 

 

Dear, Ms. Dora Smith,

 

Here is my knowledge on 'gUveC':

 

Turkish vocabulary/ west dialect (Turkey)

gUveC: pot

kUp:big pot(to put liquids like vine)

kap:pot (in general)

kUm-et: roofing tile (made of clay)

kav:pottery clay

gUv-eC:pot(Azerbaycan-Caucasus dialects)

kum-ara:pot ( northern Asia dialects)

kum-Ca:pot (southern Asia dialects)

kuv-Sin:pot (Siberian dialects)

kom-ous:pot (Siberian dialects)

kaa: pot(in general)(Siberian dialects)

kUp:pot (old Uygur, very eastern dialect)

kam-e: pot (Japanese),

 

 

Dear Dora Smith,

 

I am Assoc. Prof. in Kirikkale University. My main research topics

are Turkic Languages and etymology.

 

You say that you need to know whether the word guvec is Turkish

origin or not in your message. It is the Turkish origin. The Turks

 did not pick up the word guvec from people who spoke Greek,

Indo-European or Slavic languages. Perhaps it was picked up by Balkanic

 nations from Turkish during the Ottoman period.

 

I have written a book on etymology and phono-semantic. Its name

is Phono-Semantic Changes in Turkish Cognate Words. It will be

published by Turkish Language Institute. There are sufficient knowladge

 about guvec in page 32 of this study.

 

guvec (güveç) was created from verb kuy- (küy-) “to catch fire,

to burn”. (See about this verb: Clauson, Sir Gerard, An Etymological

Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth Century Turkish, Oxford University Press,

1972, p. 726). kuy- is an Old Turkic verb. This verb has became guy- (güy-)

 in Turkish. -ac/-ec (-aç/-eç) is a suffix which creates nouns from

verbs (See about this suffix: Zülfikar, Hamza, Terim Sorunları ve Terim

 Yapma Yolları, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1991, s. 51.). gulec,

tıkac, surec (güleç, tıkaç, süreç) are similar nouns.

 

guvec is originally guyec (güyeç) (See about this form of guvec:

Derleme Sözlüğü, Cilt VI, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1972,

s. 2242:  güyeç “güveç, toprak kap” (Bayburt, Kars). There is a y > v

 alternation in this word: guyec > guvec. küyegü > güvey, güye > güve

are similar Turkish words.

 

Best regards.

 

Mehmet Kara

 

 

E-mail: mehkara@yahoo.com

 

To venture an opinion, i believe that the word does originate in the

Turkish [deriving from the word for the clay pot in whcih the stew is

baked] and was then borrowed into the various Balkan languages in which

it appears, during the period of Ottoman rule.

 

 

>I am looking for more information about a Balkan dish, dzuvec.  I

>understand it became popular in various parts of the Austrian empire.

 

In Romania it's called "ghiveci" (gh like the gee in geese) (veci like

the seaweed vetch).  Also known by the same name (with slightly

different pronunciation) in Bulgaria.

 

There's a very similar dish in Cyprus called yiouvetsi. My grandmother used

to make it. It's wheat grains with slivers of meat in a tomato sauce, baked

for hours in a traditional woodfired oven. Yum!!

 

( from recipe page: Meat and Orzo Oven-baked Stew (Yiouvetsi)

Yiouvetsi is one of several recipes that takes their name from the dish

actually used in cooking. The "yiouvetsi" is a large, usually round,

deep clay dish. This recipe may be made in any oven-proof baking dish,

 but clay or earthenware is preferred, as it imparts a delicious, earthy aroma

 to the stew.)

 

There are usually turkish, greek, balkan, mid-eastern etc versions of the

same dishes, for historical reasons (it's quite a small area, and over the

years, there's been a lot of mingling - friendly and unfriendly).

 

 

At 22:21 Uhr -0800 18.01.2002, Dora Smith wrote:

>I could only find one word in the Czech dictionary

>today that vaguely resembles gugem - and that is

>"kuchar".  Also, "kuchynne" kept turning up.>

 

>I did remember that the Czech letters for the j sound

>are c, d(y), and z.  I looked under gu, and I also

>looked under ko and ku.

 

 

Sivas Halk Mutfagi (Turkish cookery):

 

Gugum   (double dots over both u's, short vowel sound

over g) :    Bakir su kaplari.  work of coppersmith,

this/ that/ the, ?

 

Kosam : (Gosam) lki avucun dolusu kadar.

 

Kulek :  Yag, pekmez koymaya yarayan tahtadan

silindirik, kapakli kap.

 

Eastern Mediterranean Cooking:  (Debasque)

 

Guvec (double dots over u) - Turkey p 64 - meat

casserole.

 

Turkish Dictionary:  guvec two dots on u, squiggle

under c, guvecci - Earthenware cooking pot;

(meat and ) vegetable casserole.

 

According to the magisterial Redhouse dictionary:

guvec 1. earthenware cooking pot. 2. vegetables and meat cooked in an

earthenware cooking pot.

 

It is in Morton Benson's Serbo-Croatian Dictionary (Cambridge

University Press). I have transliterated the accented word:

"djuvec  1. djuvece  -eta stew (made of lamb and vegetables)  2. pan

for making stew."

 

That the word applies both to the food and the cooking vessel is

interesting in view of the similar contributions we have had from the

Turkish side.

 

 

try news:soc.culture.czecho-slovak

 

>

 

>Word appears to mean cook, don't know what kuchynne

>means.  I think that partly because the English to

>Czech dictionary says the word for cook is kuchar.

>However, the only Czech to English dictionary did not

>contain kuchar (or kuchynne either), which is quite

>strange if the word means to cook.

 

 

kuchar~ (~ = with hac~ek , a v shaped hook above r) means 'a cook'

kuchyne~ = kitchen.

 

In German a Koch (= a cook) may also mean something like a stew (in

Czech: I do not know)

 

without diacritics you may use:

 

http://www.slovnik.cz/bin/ecd

 

 

>How does one pronounce the ch?  I thought that in

 

>Czech ch is pronounced like a hard or soft k.

 

Kuchar would traditionally be transkribed kukhar (ch in Czech = like in

German, or like Arab khalifa, Russian khleb=bread..., I suppose Juarez

in Spanish), produced by a friction of the back-tongue in the palate.

 

chut means taste, chutny tasty

chutem  (instrumental case) with taste (may be chut'em in Slovak? which

may come near to your pronounciation)

 

--

 

Peter Sint

sint@oeaw.ac.at

 

Hi Dora,

 

Incidentally I was trying to find an English statement for

"dzuvec" a couple of weeks ago. I only found one dictionary

(Poldauf's) which has a descriptive translation of

<(Bulgarian) stewed pork, spiced rice and vegetables>.

 

People do change recipes as they please, if they're bold

enough, don't they, so I wouldn't care you have beef rather

than pork in yours. The similarities quite prevail, so

Bulgaria could be the country of origin, if good old Poldauf

is right.

 

Jirka Bolech

 

Ahoj, Doro!

 

I also live in Austin (well, Pflugerville), and I've passed your query

on to my wife, who is from Serbia.

 

Michael Grant

 

------ Forwarded Message

 

From: "Grant, Tanja"

Date: Fri, 25 Jan 2002 11:16:46 -0500

To: 'Michael Grant'

Subject: RE: [Czechlist] trying to trace a favorite family casserole, and

also need info about dzuvec, and a traditional Czech costume

 

I am not much of a cook, but there is a dish called djuvec. I can look it up

if you want me to.

 

Tanja Grant

Maritz Travel

Intl. Dept.

Tanja.Grant@maritz.com

 

-----Original Message-----

 

From: Michael Grant [mailto:mgrant@bdanube.com]

Sent: Friday, January 25, 2002 9:53 AM

To: Tanja Grant

Subject: FW: [Czechlist] trying to trace a favorite family casserole,

 

and also need info about dzuvec, and a traditional Czech costume

 

Doe this sound familiar?

 

Michael

 

Mom:

 

I found more research in the library.  I followed the

trail of ingredients.  The Turks brought rice,

tomatoes and peppers to the Balkans in the 15th

through 17th centuries.  They also brought the name

dzuvec (squiggle under c, pron juvech).  dz is a

separate letter in Serbian alphabet, the three pages

of words that begin with it in the Serbian dictionary

are mostly imports from other languages.  Dzuvec is

not found in the Serbian dictionary.  Surprise - it is

found in the Turkish dictionary, and also in Turkish

cookbooks.  guvec or govec, guvecci; u/o pronounced

like French eu/u, squiggle under c, soft g sound.

pronounced guvech.  It means meat and vegetable

casserole.  Seems to be quite a variety of them.

 

More surprises; according to someone on one of those

Eastern European lists, dzuvecci is the Bulgarian word

for dzuvec.

 

Yours,

Dora

 

 

Hatay Mutfagi Sempozyumu  (Turkish cookery)

 

Dugun pila vi - Antalya (long sounds over both u's,

short vowel sound over g.

 

Ebegumeci bugulasmasi, dolmasi, salatasi, Kaburga.

salatasi = salad

 

Govec (two dots over o, squiggle under c - Burdur,

Isparta.  (Sparta)

 

Havuc (squiggle under c) domasi, sulusu - K. Maras.

dolma = anything filled or stuffed such as meat, vegs

stuffed w rice, meat.

 

Komec (two dots over o, squiggle under c - ebe gomeci

Yuvalak - G. Antep.

 

 

 

Turkish dictionaries:

 

cokek (squiggle under c, two dotsover o;  ~elek skim

milk cheese

 

gugum (two dots on each u, sort vowel sound on g) -

copper vessel w handle, spout, lid.)

 

o w two dots is as in eu in French peu.

u w two dots is u in French tu.

u is u as in bull.

o as o in got.

c w squiggle under it is ch as in church.

c is j as in jar.

j is s as in measure.

s w squiggle under it is sh as in shut.

g w short vowel sound over it is w hard vowels a

gutteral and barely perceptible g ;

w soft vowels pronounced y (eger = eyer)

v between English v and w; itis sometimes

interchangeable with g with a short vowel sound over

it.

dovmek = dogmek w short vowel sound over g.

 

 

I don't know whether this information will further your dictionary

quest, but in the Roman alphabet used in Bosnian menus the dish is

usually given as djuvec not dzuvec. And in Serbia the dish is usually

transliterated from the Cyrillic alphabet as djuvec. However perhaps

more relevant to your quest is that the Czechs call a meat stew

'dusene maso' - the 's' is pronounced as a 'sh' or soft 'j', so that's

perhaps getting closer to the 'gujem' that your mother thought she

heard.

 

After W.W.II, an annual Community Folk Festival was held in the Triple Cities:

Binghamton, Johnson City and Endicott, New York.  In 1950, the Folk festival

published a cookbook documenting recipes from 45 different nationalities of

people living in the area.

 

 

 

Moslems brought rice from Middle East to Mediterranean

about 900, but cultivation of rice in the area began

only 500 years ago and ue of rice in diet long limited

by the supply.   (Another history says Romans used

rice but only wealthy could afford it as it was

imported from India.)

 

Edgar anderson (botanist) says Turks diffused tomato

into the Levant and Balkan countries.

 

The Turks prob diffused American plants to eastern

Mediterranean ctries in 16th cent when Ottoman Empire

was dominant  They picked up the plants in Spanish or

Italian ports and took them to other ctries.    Chilli

pepper to Hungary in 1526.

 

Peppers and maize also became popular items of the

Blakan diet.  ernand Braudel wrote turks introduced

rice, sesame seeds, cotton, and maize int o the area

in the 5th and 16th ctries.

 

anderson noted that there is a wide and  apparently

coherent area encompassing the Balkans adn Tu5rkey and

running along the edge of Iran toward Arabia and

ethiopia, where th etomato has been used for centuries

in the everday diet orf common people.

 

Culinary legacy of Turks still evident in

Mediterranean cuisine from Yugoslavia in the east to

Algeria in the west.

 

 

The Cooking of Vienna's Empire

 

Yugoslav recipes for many dishes harken back to farm

meals in their use of tomatoes, peppers and eggplant.

 

Dzuvec (with v over the c), the savory Serbian meat

and vegetable casserole.

 

Lovacki Djuvec (Hunter's stew)

 

8 slices bacon,  chopped

1 1/2 cps chopped onions

1 tsp chopped garlic

1 cp sliced carrots

2 cps water

1/4 cp red wine vinegar

3 lbs boneless beef cut in 2 in cubes

1/ tsp salt

black pepper

1 cp converted rice

2 medium green peppers sliced in strips

1 1/4 cp beef stock

salt.

 

 

 

The Slavic section of the cookbook included a Yugoslavian recipe for "Djuvech"

 

subtitled "Vegetable, Rice and Meat Casserole."

 

 

Poor Mary Jane had the misfortune to grow up in the 1920's when

 rice was unlikely to feature on the dinner menu except in the

 form of rice pudding. But by the time Mary Jane had children

of her own, she would probably have encountered rice in its

traditional savoury form as the accompaniment to a curry or a

 Chinese meal.

 

Food historians are uncertain of when rice grains were first

cultivated for food, but suggest it was over five thousand

years ago, probably in Northern India. From there it spread

eastward to China, South East Asia and Japan. To the west,

grains were planted by ancient Middle Eastern races, including

the Persians and Arabs. Even today, modern Iranians boast of

a rice culture that goes back thousands of years and have some

 of the finest recipes in the world, many including Basmati.

 

Rice as a food has been used longer in Britain and the rest of

 Europe than potatoes. One of the earliest recorded rice recipes

 appears in a book written in the twelfth century by a royal

chef to the English court. In those days, rice was regarded as

a medicinal food rated alongside precious spices and sugar.

 

Court cooks were very fond of making highly refined white

dishes that they would set in elaborate moulds, dishes they

called "Blancmanges", and rice was naturally ideal for such

elegant concoctions. Rice was very popular with the moors

who in previous centuries had swept round the North African

 Mediterranean coast and up into Spain where they established

the Spanish rice industry (for such classic rice dishes such a

s Paella). Round rice grains were introduced into the Po Valley

in the fifteenth century, developing into the great risotto grain

s found in many of the worlds restaurants.

 

Rice was taken by European settlers during the sixteenth -

seventeenth centuries to the new lands of the Southern states

 of America sowing the seeds for what has become an important

 agricultural industry for the USA. Thomas Jefferson is reported

 to have smuggled out creamy round rice grains from Italy when

he was ambassador to France, to plant in his great garden at

Monticello in Virginia. This helped to improve the Carolina rice

industry, supplying grains for creamy milk puddings used by

generations of country cooks.

 

Mrs. Beeton lists no less than twelve rice recipes in her first

edition cook book of 1861. Then the rice grains on sale were

known as Carolina (round grain for puddings) or Patna (long grain

 for savoury dishes). As the influence of the British Raj was felt

 in Britain during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

so more recipes appeared for curries suggesting long grain rice

as an accompaniment.

 

The Middle East acquired rice from South Asia probably as early

as 1000 B.C. Persia loomed large as the principal stepping stone

from tropical Asia toward points west of the Persian Empire. The

Romans learned about rice during the expedition of Alexander the

Great to India (c. 327—4 B.C.) but imported rice wine instead of

growing the crop. The introduction of rice into Europe could have

 taken different routes: (1) from Persia to Egypt between the

fourth and the first centuries B.C., (2) from Greece or Egypt to

Spain and Sicily in the eighth century A.D., and (3) from Persia

to Spain in the eighth century and later to Italy between the

thirteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Turks brought rice from

Southwest Asia into the Balkan Peninsula, and Italy could also

have served as a stepping stone for rice growing in that region.

 

Direct imports from various parts of Asia into Europe are also

probable (Lu and Chang 1980).

 

 

In the spread of rice to Africa, Madagascar received Asian rices

probably as early as 1000 B.C. when the early settlers arrived

in the southwest region. Indonesian settlers who reached the

island after the beginning of the Christian era brought in some

Javanica rices. Madagascar also served as the intermediary for the

countries in East Africa, although direct imports from South Asia

would have been another source. Countries in West Africa obtained

Asian rice through European colonizers between the fifteenth and

seventeenth centuries. Rice was also brought into Congo from

Mozambique in the nineteenth century (Lu and Chang 1980).

 

The Caribbean islands obtained their rices from Europe in the late

fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Central and South America

received rice seeds from European countries, particularly Spain,

during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In addition,

there was much exchange of cultivars among countries of Central,

South, and North America (Lu and Chang 1980).

 

Rice cultivation in the United States began around 1609 as a trial

planting in Virginia. Other plantings soon followed along the south

 Atlantic coast. Rice production was well established in South Carolina

 by about 1690. It then spread to the areas comprising Mississippi

and southwest Louisiana, to adjoining areas in Texas, and to central

Arkansas, which are now the main rice-producing states in the South.

 California began rice growing in 1909—12 with the predominant

cultivar the sinica type, which can tolerate cold water at the seedling

stage.

 

In contrast to all this scholarly effort on the antiquity of rice

cultivation in Asia, our

 understanding of the matter in West Africa rests solely on the

writing of R. Porteres (1956), who dates it from 1500 B.C. in the

 primary Niger center, and from A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1200 in the two

 Guinean secondary centers.

 

 

     South America is the home of the tomato and has been cultivated by Indians

in the Andes Mountains since prehistoric times.  It moved from South America

to Mexico more then 3,000 years ago, when settlers migrated to this area of

the world.  The Tomato was introduced to European society in the 16th Century

and was first grown in Italy in 1550.  Tomatoes are a fruit, not a vegetable and

 belong to the same family as the poisonous nightshade family.  For a long time

in the U.S. they were thought to be poisonous and inedible until the 19th century.

  The tomato is now cultivated throughout the world.

 

he Well-Traveled Tomato

 

The tomato has circled the globe like no other vegetable or fruit. The native

populations of South America were the first to encounter tomatoes. Then,

in the sixteenth century, the conquistadors took fresh tomatoes to Europe, where

 they were admired for qualities other than taste for quite some time. Europeans

 thought they might be helpful as an aphrodisiac but hesitated to eat them on a

 regular basis. In fact, tomatoes were considered poisonous and well into the

nineteenth century, some cookbooks advised people to boil them several hours,

for safety's sake.

 

Tomatoes, which grow exceptionally well in the warm soil surrounding the

Mediterranean, gradually made their way into regional cuisines. Culinary

 history was made in a big way when gazpacho, pasta and pizza, three specialties

 that had been on the scene for centuries, met the tomato for the first time.

 

Eventually the tomato returned to the New World, following several routes.

Spanish colonists took them to the Caribbean and, farther north, to Florida

and Texas. Slaves in the Caribbean and perhaps Africa, who already knew how to

use tomatoes in stews and other dishes, incorporated them into the cooking of

the American South. French and Italian immigrants brought tomato seeds with them

to plant in America.

 

The tomato traveled to the Philippines with the Spaniards and, from there, it

was only a matter of time until they showed up in Indian curries and other Asian

dishes.

 

Originally cultivated by the Aztecs and Incas as early as 700 A.D., the tomato

 is native to the Americas. Europeans were first made aware of the tomato when

 explorers brought back seed from Mexico and Central America in the 16th century.

Tomatoes quickly became popular in the Mediterranean countries but received

resistance as they spread north. The British in particular considered the

fruit to be beautiful but poisonous. This fear was shared in the American

colonies and it was years before the tomato gained wide spread acceptance. By

the middle of the 19th century, tomatoes were in use across America; and today

the tomato is generally considered to be the favorite vegetable of the World

public.

 

Genetic interdependence characterises both food crops and export crops. Even

the most genetically abundant regions of the world look beyond their own

 borders for half the germplasm they need for their staple foods. Wheat,

for example, originated in the Near East, but the specific genes that inspired

 semidwarf wheats and propelled the Green Revolution came from Japan via Mexico,

 and disease-resistant genes found recently in Brazil may support crop yields

as far away as India. Tomatoes originated in Latin America, but some of their

most useful processing qualities have come from the Philippines; and when corn

 blight struck the southern United States, resistant genes were found as far away

 as West Africa even though the crop's genetic "home" lies in MesoAmerica.

 

Native to Mexico and Central America, it's not clear how tomatoes came to the U.S..

 Thomas Jefferson grew them in the 1780s and credited one of his neighbors with

the introduction, but Harriott Pinckney Horry recorded a recipe "To Keep Tomatoes

 For Winter Use" in 1770. There is a folk legend that they were introduced by

 African slaves who came to North America by way of the Caribbean, and some

historians believe that the Portugese introduced tomatoes to the West Coast of

 Africa.

 

Where did Chili come from?

 

The majority of experts agree that the wide variety of peppers native to North

and South America came from the jungles of the Amazon. Seeds, carried by Amazon

 and later by Aztec Indians, spread throughout South and Central America and

into Mexico.

 

Aztec recipes as old as 2,000 years speak of a fiery hot pod added to stews.

Montezuma was said to have started his day with a plate of plain chile peppers.

 Rumor has it, the Aztec Indians much later in history when they were really

upset at the Spaniards, cut them up into small cubes and stewed them with chile

peppers!

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

The Niña, Pinta and Santa Maria

 

On Friday, August 3rd, 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail on a journey destined

to change the world. Landing in the Americas (thinking he was somewhere in the Far

 East) he mistook the fiery hot pod as peppercorns and called them peppers. The

native Indians offered him a stew made with chile peppers as a courtesy to a guest.

The hot taste reminded him of a stew he ate back in Spain that was prepared with

peppercorns obtained from spice traders (who got them from the Far East).

 

Peppercorns were the rage in Europe at the time so a direct sea route to the Far

East would be very convenient (profitable). When the natives offered Columbus

this stew he thought this must be the right place and the rest is history.

 

Over the next century seafaring explorers and spice traders distributed these

 

peppers to Europe, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. Many seeds were planted

but since chile peppers grow best close to the Equator, other countries developed

 strains unique to their climate and soil conditions.

 

It is estimated that today around 2,000 different varieties of peppers exist

 worldwide and 75% of all kitchens use peppers in some form.

 

The arrival of chili peppers in the area can be placed with relative accuracy.

 Chili peppers, indeed all peppers, are native to the Americas and arrived in

the region with European explorers/exploiters. This means they could not have

arrived before about 1520, and were widespread [in China] by 1600.

 

It is not fully clear how the paprika arrived in Hungary, but there is no

doubt that the fruits were brought by the Turks in the 17.th century, who

might have encountered them before in Portuguese settlements in Central Asia.

Anyway, paprika became quickly naturalized and have since proved an important

flavour in Hungarian cuisine. Still, some of the best paprika cultivars in

Europe are found in Hungary. An example is the cherry paprika ("cherry pepper",

 

 

Here are the recipes (obviously my mother's recipe is the same general

idea) which confirm that her recipe is djuvec:

 

I do not know if you have a food-processor and/or you can buy prepared

vegetables (chopped onions for instance) and meat (cut into cubes for

stew). Here you can get all those and they are a big help. In the

meantime I am sending you a recipe for djuvec which is a yugoslav

(serbian) popular dish with lots of vegetables, rice and meat (can be

also without meat). All kind of vegetables can be used in different

quantity ratios.  The only vegetables absolutely necessary are the

tomatos.

 

Cut the tomatos  into slices. Chop the onions. Peel and cut the rest of

the vegetables into medium pieces. Mix all the vegetables (except the

tomatos) , add 1/4 cup of oil, salt, pepper, parsley and celery.  Take

a casserole (the best ones are stoneware, but this is not essential).

Put into it layers in the following order:

 

                top

 

              ------

 

              1/2 of the tomatoes

              rice

              1/2 of the vegetables

              1/2 of the meat

              1/2 of the vegetables

              1/2 of the tomatos

 

              --------

 

                bottom - repeat above

 

Add water  and the rest of the oil. Cover and bake in a medium oven for

2 hours and more. Serve from the dish in which you prepared the djuvec.

 

It can be re-heated .

 

After W.W.II, an annual Community Folk Festival was held in the Triple Cities:

Binghamton, Johnson City and Endicott, New York.  In 1950, the Folk festival

published a cookbook documenting recipes from 45 different nationalities of

people living in the area.

 

The Slavic section of the cookbook included a Yugoslavian recipe for "Djuvech"

subtitled "Vegetable, Rice and Meat Casserole."

 

Binghamton, New York (1950)

p. 168

 

Yugoslavian

 

Djuvech

 

(Vegetable, Rice and Meat Casserole)

 

2 lbs. rice

3 green peppers, sliced

3 onions, sliced

Salt, pepper, red paprika

2 lbs. fresh tomatoes, sliced (or 3 1/2 cups cooked tomatoes)

2 lbs. pork chops

 

Cook rice in salt water until half done; drain and put into baking dish.  Slice

peppers and onions in large pieces, fry in butter until golden brown; season

with salt, pepper and paprika.  Slice fresh tomatoes.  Mix tomatoes, peppers

and onions with rice.  Season meat with salt and pepper and fry in butter until

golden brown.  Alternate the meat and rice mixtures in the casserole. Add

approximately two cups of water. (If fresh tomatoes are used it is advisable to

add one can of tomato juice.)  Add salt and pepper to taste.  Cover baking dish

and bake in oven at 350 degrees until rice and meat are done. -- submitted by

 

Mrs. Natali Orloff

 

 

Recipes are often flavored with garlic and parsley, sometimes others.

 

(bay leaf, oregano)

 

 

Stuffed Peppers  (More people told me to give up tracing "gujem" and

make stuffed peppers)

 

INGREDIENTS:

 

4 large green peppers 2 medium onions, finely chopped 2 cloves garlic,

             mashed

4 Tbs. butter or vegetable oil 1/2 lb. ground pork 1 cup cooked

       white rice

4 Tbs. fresh parsley, chopped 2 tsp. marjoram 28 oz. can tomatoes

 

1 To prepare the sauce in which the peppers will cook, heat 2

Tbs. of the oil or butter on medium-low in a large frying pan or

casserole dish. Add half the chopped onion and fry, stirring

occasionally, till almost golden. Pour on the canned tomatoes

and crush them with a fork. Season with 2 Tbs. of the chopped

parsley, 1 tsp. of the marjoram, and salt and freshly ground

black pepper to taste. Leave to simmer on low heat, uncovered,

while making the peppers.

 

2 Cut the tops off the peppers and reserve. Core the peppers and

then wash them and their tops.

 

3 Heat the remaining butter or oil on medium-low in a frying pan.

Add the remaining onions and the garlic. Fry, stirring occasionally,

till almost golden. Add the ground pork, mix well, and fry till the

meat is browned throughout. Take off the heat.

 

4 Mix the cooked rice into the pork. Mix in the remaining parsley

and marjoram. Season well with salt and pepper.

 

5 Fill each of the peppers with the stuffing then replace their tops.

Put the peppers in the tomato sauce, cover the pan, and cook on

medium-low heat till tender, about 30 minutes.

 

 

Ground Beef Risotto, Itally

 

3 tbsps olive oil

1 cp raw rice

1 lb ground beef

2 onions, chopped

1 green pepper, chopped

1 rib celerby, chopped

1 1 lb can Italian tomatoes

3/4 cp water

1/4 cp chopped parsley

1 tsp oregano

2 tsps sugar

1 1/2 tsp salt

1/4 tsp pepper

 

In large skillet, heat olive oil and cook the beef, rice, and

onion until the beef is

browned and onion translucent.  Add pepper and celery, cook for

5 minutes.  Add the rest of the ingredients, stir.  Bring to a

boil, reduce heat and simmer covered for 30 minutes until rice

is tender and the liquid absorbed.  Offer grated parmesan cheese

separately.

 

Quail with rice

 

6 tbsps butter

4 - 8 quail

1 small onion, chopped

2 green peppers, diced

1 cp short grain rice

2 med tomatoes peeled and chopped

parsley to taste, chopped

salt

2 1/2 cps water

 

Fry the quil in butter until browned all over, lift out and

keep warm.  Add onion, cook until it begins to color.  Add

peppers and fry for a few minutes.  Add rice and fry for a few

minutes.  Add the tomatoes, put back the quail and sprinkle on

the parsley.  Season with salt and let the dish simmer for 5

minutes, then add the water.  Cover and simmer gently until rice

is tender.  YOu can make the dish in a flameproof casserole

instead of a pan, and when the water is added, cover teh casserole

and finish cooking in a pre-heated oven at 325.

 

Hamburger with ricen (Czechoslovakia)

 

1 cp rice

med can tomatoes

1/4 cp chopped onion

1 tbsp butter

1 lb hamburger

top w grated cheese

 

 

Czech delight

 

1/2 lb ground beef

1 large onion

med ground pepper

can ea tomato, mushroom soup

Mix in 1/2 small pkg egg noodles, cooked.

 

 

beef casserole

 

1 lb ground beef

1 chopped onion

1 chopped green pepper

3 cps cooked rice

1 clove garlic

1 15 oz can tomato sauce

15 oz can kidney beans

grated cheese

 

From "The Czechoslovak Cookbook" (Joza Brizova, Crown Publishers,

1965):

 

(Diacritical marks not included here)

 

Papriky Zapecene S Masem A Ryzi  (Green Peppers with Meat and Rice)

 

3 medium onions, sliced

1/2 cup shortening

1/2 pound pork, diced

1/2 pound lamb, diced

Salt, to taste

1 pound tomatoes, sliced

8 green peppers, sliced

1 cup uncooked rice

1-2 cups water or stock

 

Fry 1 onion in 1/4 cup of shortening, add meat and salt, and brown. In

another pan, saute tomatoes in the remaining shortening for 20-30

minutes. Rub through a sieve, and add to meat.  Add last 2 onions, green

peppers, and rice. Put mixture into a greased casserole, add water or

stock, and bake in a preheated 350 F oven until rice is tender (45-60

minutes) Serves 4.

 

OR:

 

Hovezi Dusene S Rajskymi Jablicky A Zelenymi Paprikami

 

(Braised beef with Tomatoes and Green Pepper)

 

1 medium onion, sliced

1/4 pound lard or bacon fat

2 pounds beef

Salt to taste

2 cups water

1 tablespoon flour

1/2 pound tomatoes, peeld and sliced

1/2 pound green peppers, sliced

 

Fry onion in fat until golden. Add meat and salt; brown on both sides.

Pour in 3/4 cup of water, cover, and simmer until meat is tender (about

2 to 2 1/2 hours). Remove meat from pot. Dust drippings with flour; stir

until brown. Add remaining water, tomatoes, and green peppers. Simmer

for 10-15 minutes. Slice meat and return it to gravy. Serve with rice,

potatoes, or dumplings. Serves 4 to 6.

 

 

Neither of these uses ground beef, but that could have been an

alteration. What you describe, sounds, to me, like the ingredients for

stuffed peppers. The recipe for those, from my paternal grandmother, who

trained as a cook in Karlsbad (=Karlovy Vary) in western Bohemia (later

cooked in Vienna before coming to America) included ground meat, rice,

salt and pepper; stuffed into a green pepper and simmered (not baked as

my mother did) until tender. The name for those in the Czechoslovak

cookbook, however, is "Papriky Plnene).  Perhaps "gujem" was a nickname

for the dish (like "Sloppy Joe's for barbequed beef)? Or a dialect (like

Slumgullion; a meat stew or what my father would call this casserole)?

 

Good luck!

 

 

Subject: Re: need info, dzuvec; rice tomato meat casserole

From: giga7@aol.com (Giga7)

Newsgroups: soc.culture.croatia

 

I do not bake it, I cook it in a pot on the stove top. Fry chopped onions for a

few minutes, cut in at least 3 green peppers and fry for a bit, add  cut up

(and peeled) fresh tomatoes, fry for a bit, put in a cup of well rinsed rice,

pour in 2 cups of water (I use chicken broth) and slowly cook for 20 minutes.

After you put in rice, do not steer the pot. Carefully distribute the rice with

the fork all over the fried mixture.

 

You must peel the tomatoes. Put them in boiling water for a moment or two and

they peel easily. I could eat this alone, but sometimes serve it with a steak

or any other meat and green lettuce salad.

 

My mother and grandmother called it

"djuvece" and it was always understood this was a Croatian dish. I could also

it this "djuvece" cold in the morning, for breakfast!

 

You can see it is my favorite dish.

 

Try it this way.

 

 

Subject: Re: information about Balkan dish called dzuvec (juvech)

From: Tony Roder

Newsgroups: rec.food.cooking

Reply-To: tony at well dot com

 

On Tue, 22 Jan 2002 02:43:22 GMT, Dora Smith wrote:

 

>I am looking for more information about a Balkan dish, dzuvec.  I

>understand it became popular in various parts of the Austrian empire.

 

 

In Romania it's called "ghiveci" (gh like the gee in geese) (veci like

the seaweed vetch).  Also known by the same name (with slightly

different pronunciation) in Bulgaria.

 

There's a vegetarian version (Monks' ghiveci) similar to the French

ratatatouille, and a meat version, with pieces (not ground) of lamb

most of the time, but also with beef or pork. The proportion of

vegetables varies according to availability and regional tastes.

 

T.

 

"Dora Smith"  wrote in message

news:Xns919DD2C028C23tiggernut@24.28.95.158...

> I am looking for more information about a Balkan dish, dzuvec.  I

> understand it became popular in various parts of the Austrian empire.

 

 

There's a very similar dish in Cyprus called yiouvetsi. My grandmother used

to make it. It's wheat grains with slivers of meat in a tomato sauce, baked

for hours in a traditional woodfired oven. Yum!!

 

There are usually turkish, greek, balkan, mid-eastern etc versions of the

same dishes, for historical reasons (it's quite a small area, and over the

years, there's been a lot of mingling - friendly and unfriendly).

 

hth

Chris

 

 

Djuvec!

 

http://staufenblick.de/balkan_specialities.html

 

 

Use a search engine and you will find many more (most in German).

The dzuvec links in Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Czech often do not

work.

 

http://wuarchive.wustl.edu/usenet/rec.food.recipes/recipes/meat/djuvec

 

I do not know if you have a food-processor and/or you can buy prepared

vegetables (chopped onions for instance) and meat (cut into cubes for

stew). Here you can get all those and they are a big help. In the

meantime I am sending you a recipe for djuvec which is a yugoslav

(serbian) popular dish with lots of vegetables, rice and meat (can be

also without meat). All kind of vegetables can be used in different

quantity ratios.  The only vegetables absolutely necessary are the

tomatos. Here goes:

 

1/2 cup of oil

1 kg meat cut into medium pieces

3/4 kg onions

1 and 1/2 Kg tomatos

eggplant

green peppers

zucchini

2 cups of water

60 gr. rice

parsley, celery (you can use dried )

salt, pepper

 

Cut the tomatos  into slices. Chop the onions. Peel and cut the rest of

the vegetables into medium pieces. Mix all the vegetables (except the

tomatos) , add 1/4 cup of oil, salt, pepper, parsley and celery.  Take

a casserole (the best ones are stoneware, but this is not essential).

Put into it layers in the following order:

 

                top

 

              ------

 

              1/2 of the tomatos

              rice

              1/2 of the vegetables

              half of meat

              1/2 of the vegetables

              1/2 of the tomatos

 

              --------

 

                bottom - repeat

 

Add water  and the rest of the oil. Cover and bake in a medium oven for

2 hours and more. Serve from the dish in which you prepared the djuvec.

 

It can be re-heated .

 

 

There was one here (no more, but the author/webmaster will provide it)

http://www.df.lth.se/~thanisa/cgi-bin/wrapper.cgi?rec.food.recipes/meat/djuvec

 

 

 

In German

http://www.omarezepte.at/schmankerln/djuvec.html

 

 (quite popular in Vienna but original version not with my vegetarian wife)

 

--

 

sint@oeaw.ac.at

 

 

Hello Dora!

 

> I just need to check.  Your recipe for dzuvek contains

> ground meat, rice, tomatoes, green pepper, and onion

> baked in a casserole?

 

I looked to books and found several variants of dzuvec.

One is prepared with small fishes, another ones with pork

beef and mutton meat but not ground but cutted to cubes.

All the variants are prepared with rice and the mentioned

vegetables baked in a casserole.

 

With ground meat is prepared another Balkanian food  -

musaka. There are also a lot of different variants of musaka

I found some recipes with pastries, not with a rice but who knows?

Nevertheless the word GUJEM (pronontiation please?)

seems to bemore simillar to DZUVEC than MUSAKA.

 

I dont know ;-)

 

Sincerlly,

 

Martin

 

 

>If koch in German could mean something like stew,

>would kochem be a German word for stew?

 

No

 

 

Dear Dora,

 

I think that you wrote about traditional Balkan food DZUVEC (hacek over

letters Z and C).

A lot of Czechs travelled for summer holidays to Bulgarian and Yugoslav

(now Croatian) seaside resorts.

 

There they also knew Bulgarian and Yugoslav food and often they brought

some recipes.

 

Therefore you can find some Balkanian food at Czech restaurants and

families, today.

Similar situation is with CEVAPCICI (haceks over all the Cs),

Yugoslav food, very popular among Czechs :-)

Dtto Balkan salads.

 

Martin Pytr

 

 

Hallo Dora,

 

cause some of my ancestors came from the banat, dzuvec is  my favorit

food ;-))

 

You need:

 

4 onions

500 g uncooked rice

1000 g tomatos in slice = about 1/2 lb.

2 cups of water

salt

8 pices of cooked, smoked bacon

 

took a casserole

 

first cut the onions in fine pices, then toke them with the rice in the

casserole

water with salt over that

nowe put the tomatos over all

at last the pices of bacon

all together for 50 minutes by 200° Celsius in the oven

 

Michael Krombholz

 

Banat is a region in Romania. (SE Europe) It was once Turkish territory.

Settled by Serbs, Jews, a few Armenians, and alot of German colonists.

Banat is an ethnically mixed historic region of eastern Europe; it is

bounded by Transylvania and Walachia in the east, by the Tisza River in

the west, by the Mures River in the north, and by the Danube River in the

south. After 1920 Banat was divided among the modern states of Romania,

Yugoslavia (Vojvodina), and Hungary. The name banat has its origin in a

Persian word meaning lord, or master, and was introduced into Europe by

the Avars; it came to mean a frontier province or a district under

military governorship.

 

 

Hello Dora!

 

 

Here is the recipe of Dzuvec what I found in the book and translated

to you:

 

Ingrediences:

200g of mutton meat

200g of beef meat

200g of pork meat

40g onion

200g tomatoes

200g red or green pepper

200g aubergine

2 spoons of red pepper

2 spoons of lard

200g potatoes

1 cup of rice

broth, pepper, salt, parsley

 

Gice cutted onion to the melted lard, add cube-shaped cutted meat,

vegetables, salt and pepper.

Add a bit of broth and stew it for 30 minutes. Add rice and cube-shaped

cutted potatoes and stew it until the food will be soft.

 

Dobrou chut!

 

Martin

 

 

If you like the French ratatouille, try this Romanian version of a garden stew.

 

 

Romanian Ghiveci (that's ghee-VETCH)

6-8 servings

 

2 potatoes, quartered and sliced

1/2 head cauliflower, separated into flowerets

1/2 eggplant, cubed (not peeled)

2 carrots, sliced into pennies

1 small green or yellow summer squash, sliced

2 medium onions, quartered and sliced

1 17-oz can plum tomatoes with liquid

1/2 cup green peas

1/2 cup cut green beans (not French style)

1 green or red bell pepper, seeded and cut in chunks

2 ribs celery, sliced

1-1/2 cups vegetable bouillon

1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil

2 cloves garlic, chopped

1/4 cup each chopped fresh dill and parsley

Salt and ground black pepper to taste

 

Preheat oven to 350 deg F. Place the cut vegetables in a three- or

four-quart ungreased casserole dish. Pour the tomatoes and liquid on top.

Mix together the bouillon, olive oil, and garlic, then pour this mixture

over the vegetables. Season with salt and pepper to taste, and stir all

ingredients once or twice to distribute. Sprinkle the dill and parsley on

top. Cover the casserole dish and bake at least one hour, or until the

vegetables are of desired tenderness. (Stefan likes this a bit mushy.

If you do too, bake for closer to two hours.) Allow to cool a bit before

serving over rice or mamaliga (a traditional Romanian dish of corn meal

mush, like polenta; recipe follows). Also good either reheated the next

day or cold -- drained -- on crusty rolls for sandwiches. Suggestion: Double

the recipe and make one batch in a disposable aluminum pan for freezing.)

 

Variation:

 

> If there's a particular vegetable that you can't find -- or can't abide

:-) -- substitute another of your choice. Or use more of one of the other

listed vegetables. And although fresh vegetables are best, use frozen if

you prefer.

 

> To serve as a Passover dish, substitute another vegetable for the peas.

 

List of recipes: Main dishes

 

 

Ghiveci (previous recipe) tastes great over mamaliga, a sort of corn meal

mush, as do mushrooms sautéed in a wine and herb sauce. There are as many

recipes for mamaliga as there are stars in the Romanian sky! Here's a

simple one. Mamaliga is properly made in a large ceaun, or cast iron

kettle, over an open fire to feed farm workers an inexpensive yet filling

meal. A very reliable Romanian source tells me that the proper salting

for mamaliga is the sweat that drips from the cook who's stirring the

big, hot pot! This recipe presumes that you'll be using a salt shaker

instead. :-)

 

Mamaliga

About 4 servings

 

1 cup yellow corn meal

2 cups water

1/2 teaspoon salt

Corn or sesame oil or vegan margarine, optional

 

Bring the water to a boil in a heavy saucepan. Add the salt, then

sprinkle in the corn meal, stirring constantly. (Note: Stirring

with a wire whisk helps prevent lumps.) Reduce the heat and cook

over low heat, stirring frequently, until thick but still pourable,

 about 20-30 minutes. Pour into a shallow bowl and allow to set,

either on the counter or in the refrigerator. When firmed up, cut

into wedges and serve, or brown the wedges in a frying pan in a

little oil or margarine before serving.

 

 

Beef hotchpotch/

Ghiveci din carne de vaca

 

1 3/4 lb/750 g fatty beef, 3 tablespoons lard, 1 parsnip, 1 carrot,

2 peppers, 1 eggplant, 1 zuchini, a handful of okra, a handful of

 green beans, a handful of wax beans, a handful of string beans,

1/2 lb/250 g peas, 1 small cauliflower, 2 big onions, 3 potatoes,

 1 small celery root, 5-6 big tomatoes, 2 garlic cloves (optional

), minced parsley and dill, salt

 

Cut the meat into bite sizes and fry in lard until they start to

brown. Add salt and tepid water to cover. Let boil on slow heat,

covered, an hour to an hour and a half. During this time, prepare

the vegetables. Clean, wash and cut in bite sizes. Arrange the

vegetables on top of the meat, add the sliced, peeled and seeded

tomatoes, the parsley and dill and salt. Let boil on top of the range

for a few minutes, then place in the oven. Shake the pot from time

to time so that they do not stick. Bake until the liquid evaporates.

 

 

YIOUVETSI

 

Categories: Main dish

Yield: 6 servings

 

      6    Lamb leg or shoulder chops

           -(thickly cut)

    1/4 c  Butter or corn oil

      1 lg Onion; finely chopped

      1 c  Tomato puree

      1 c  Chopped, peeled tomatoes

      3    Cloves

      1 lg Cinnamon bark piece

           Salt

           Freshly ground black pepper

      4 c  Boiling water or stock

           -(more if necessary)

      2 c  Orzo or kritharaki

    1/4 c  Grated kefalotiri cheese

    1/2 c  Diced haloumy or feta cheese

 

  Oven temperature: 180oC (350oF) Cooking time: 2 hours

  Have meat retailer cut chops about 4 cm (1-1/4 inches) thick.

  Alternatively purchace a leg of lamb and have it cut into 6 pieces.

  Place lamb in a baking dish and spread or pour oil or butter on top.  Bake

  in a moderate oven for 20 minutes.

 

  Add onion to dish and return to oven for further 10 minutes.  Add tomato

  puree, chopped tomatoes, cloves, cinnamon bark and salt and pepper to

  taste.  Baste meat with liquid and cook for futher hour until meat is

  tender, adding a little of the water or stock if necessary.

 

  When meat is cooked add water or stock and stir in pasta.  Cook for futhre

  20 minutes, stirring occasionally, and adding a little more liquid if

  mixture looks dry.  When pasta is tender, sprinkle cheese over pasta and

  return to oven for 5 minutes.  Serve immediately.

 

 

Meat and Orzo Oven-baked Stew (Yiouvetsi)

Yiouvetsi is one of several recipes that takes their name from the

dish actually used in cooking. The "yiouvetsi" is a large, usually

round, deep clay dish. This recipe may be made in any oven-proof baking

dish, but clay or earthenware is preferred, as it imparts a delicious,

earthy aroma to the stew.

 

Meat and Orzo Oven-baked Stew (Yiouvetsi)

 

Yiouvetsi is one of several recipes that takes their name from the dish

actually used in cooking. The "yiouvetsi" is a large, usually round,

deep clay dish. This recipe may be made in any oven-proof baking dish,

but clay or earthenware is preferred, as it imparts a delicious, earthy

aroma to the stew.

 

   Ingredients

 

1/4 cup Krinos olive oil

1 medium sized leg of lamb (4-5 pounds)

2 tablespoons lemon juice

Salt and pepper to taste

2 teaspoons Krinos oregano

2 garlic cloves, peel and crushed

1 cup coarsely chopped onion

1 cup water

1/2 cup dry red wine

2 cups chopped peeled plum tomatoes

2 cups low fat beef or chicken stock

2 cups orzo or kritharaki

1 cup grated Krinos kefalotiri cheese

 

1. Preheat the oven to 4500F. Lightly oil a large, deep earthenware

baking dish. Place the lamb on a roasting rack inside the dish and

rub with 2 tablespoons olive oil, lemon juice, salt, pepper and oregano.

Finely chop the garlic and sprinkle, together with the onions, on top

and around the lamb. Place meat in oven and reduce temperature to 3500F.

Roast for 1 hour.

 

2. Pour water and wine into roasting pan and continue cooking the

meat, basting every 15 minutes, for another hour, or until roasted

to desired doneness. Remove meat to a platter and cover with a tin-

foil tent to keep it warm.

 

3. About 10 minutes before removing the lamb, bring tomatoes and

chicken broth to a boil in a medium-sized saucepan. Add orzo and

return to a boil. Just after removing the meat, pour the contents

of the pot into the roasting pan, raise temperature to 4000F and

continue cooking the orzo for another 25-30 minutes, until tender.

Add water during cooking if necessary. To serve, place orzo on a large

serving bowl with the meat, sliced, in the center. Sprinkle pasta with

grated cheese and serve.

 

Yield: 8-10 servings

 

 

                    Guvec or Turlu - Vegetable Casserole

 

 

 

 Recipe By     : The Complete Middle Eastern Cookbook/Bobb1744

 Serving Size  : 6    Preparation Time :0:00

 

    2      large         Eggplants

                         Salt

    4      small         Zucchini

    3      small         Sweet green peppers

  250      grams         Okra -- optional

  250      grams         Green beans

    4      small ripe    tomatoes -- peeled

      1/2  cup           Olive oil

    3      small         Onions -- sliced

    2                    Garlic cloves -- crushed

      1/4  cup           Chopped parsley

                         Freshly ground black pepper

      1/2  cup           Water

 

 Oven temperature: 180 C (350 F) Cooking time: 1-1/2 to 2 hours

  Remove stem from eggplant, wash well then peel off 1 cm (1/2 inch) strips of

 skin lengthwise at intervals giving a striped effect.  Cut long eggplants in

 1 cm (1/2 inch) slices; oval eggplant should be quartered lengthwise, then

 cut into chunky pieces.  Spread eggplant on a tray and sprinkle liberally

 with salt.  Leave for 30 minutes, then pat dry with paper towels.

 

  Trim zucchini and cut into 4 cm (1-1/2 inch) pieces.  Remove stem and seeds

 from peppers and quarter.  Wash, trim and (if desired) de-fuzz okra. Soak in

 vinegar to remove slime.  Drain.

 

  String beans if necessary and slit in half (French cut).  Slice tomatoes.

 

  Heat half the oil in a frying pan and fry eggplant until lightly browned.

 Remove to a plate - do not drain.

 

  Add remaining oil to a pan, add sliced onions and fry gently until

 transparent.  Stir in garlic, cook 1 minute, then remove pan from heat.

 

  Place a layer of eggplant in the base of a casserole dish.  Top with some of

 the zucchini, peppers and beans.  Spread some onion mixture on top and cover

 with tomato slices.  Sprinkle with salt, pepper and some of the parsley.

  Repeat until all ingredients are used, reserving some tomato slices and

 parsley.

 

  Place prepared okra on top if used and cover with last of tomato.

 Sprinkle with parsley, salt and pepper and add water and oil drained from

 eggplant.

 

  Cover casserole and cook in a moderate oven for 1 to 1-1/2 hours until

 vegetables are tender.  Serve from casserole as an accompaniment to roast or

 grilled meats or poultry.  Often this is served as a light meal on its own;

 bread and peynir (feta) cheese are then served with it.

 

 

  Tess Mallos, "The Complete Middle East Cookbook"

 

Lamb Casserole (Kuzu Guvec)

Servings Prep. Time Cooking Time Calories % from Fat Fat Sodium Carbohydrates

Protein Cholesterol

 

6 20 minutes 1 hour 35 minutes

 

INGREDIENTS:

 

1 Tbsp butter or margarine 2 lb tender lamb, diced 2-1/2 cups meat stock

1 Tbsp tomato paste 12 shallots, peeled 1 garlic clove, crushed

6 cherry tomatoes 2 red bell peppers, seeded and quartered lengthwise 1 tsp

            dried or 1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme

salt and ground black pepper crusty bread, to serve

 

1 Melt the butter or margarine in a saucepan and add the meat. Fry over

high heat for 2 minutes to seal in the juices. Pour the stock over, stir

in the tomato paste, and bring to a boil.

 

2 Add the shallots, garlic, tomatoes, and bell peppers. Mix well then

add the herbs and seasoning.

 

3 Cover and cook over low heat (or in a preheated 350 F oven) for 1-1/2

hours, or until the meat is tender and the stock reduced by half. Serve

with chunks or warmed bread.

 

 

GUVEC OR TURLU - VEGETABLE CASSEROLE

 

Categories: Turkish, Ethnic, Vegetables, Vegetarian

Yield: 6 servings

 

      2    Long eggplants; -OR-

      1 md -Oval eggplant

           Salt

      4 sm Zucchini

      3 sm Sweet green peppers

    250 g  Okra; optional

    250 g  Green beans

      4 sm Tomatoes, ripe, peeled

    1/2 c  Olive oil

      3 sm Onions; sliced

      2    Garlic cloves; crushed

    1/4 c  Chopped parsley

           Freshly ground black pepper

    1/2 c  -Water

 

  There is some confusion about the name of this dish.  To the Turks, Turlu

  is a lamb or chicken and vegetable casserole.  Yet in other countries of

  the region Turlu is prepared as an all-vegetable casserole, with cooks

  admitting to it being a Turkish dish.  Guvec on the other hand is a

  casserole of meat or poultry and vegetables, or vegetables on their own.

 

  Oven temperature: 180 C (350 F) Cooking time: 1-1/2 to 2 hours

 

  Remove stem from eggplant, wash well then peel off 1 cm (1/2 inch) strips

  of skin lengthwise at intervals giving a striped effect.  Cut long

  eggplants in 1 cm (1/2 inch) slices; oval eggplant should be quartered

  lengthwise, then cut into chunky pieces.  Spread eggplant on a tray and

  sprinkle liberally with salt.  Leave for 30 minutes, then pat dry with

  paper towels.

 

  Trim zucchini and cut into 4 cm (1-1/2 inch) pieces.  Remove stem and seeds

  from peppers and quarter.  Wash, trim and (if desired) de-fuzz okra. Soak

  in vinegar to remove slime.  Drain.

 

  String beans if necessary and slit in half (French cut).  Slice tomatoes.

 

  Heat half the oil in a frying pan and fry eggplant until lightly browned.

  Remove to a plate - do not drain.

 

  Add remaining oil to a pan, add sliced onions and fry gently until

  transparent.  Stir in garlic, cook 1 minute, then remove pan from heat.

 

  Place a layer of eggplant in the base of a casserole dish.  Top with some

  of the zucchini, peppers and beans.  Spread some onion mixture on top and

  cover with tomato slices.  Sprinkle with salt, pepper and some of the

  parsley.  Repeat until all ingredients are used, reserving some tomato

  slices and parsley.

 

  Place prepared okra on top if used and cover with last of tomato. Sprinkle

  with parsley, salt and pepper and add water and oil drained from eggplant.

 

  Cover casserole and cook in a moderate oven for 1 to 1-1/2 hours until

  vegetables are tender.  Serve from casserole as an accompaniment to roast

  or grilled meats or poultry.  Often this is served as a light meal on its

  own; bread and peynir (feta) cheese are then served with it.

 

  Source: The Complete Middle East Cookbook - by Tess Mallos

 

 GUVEC

 

Pronounced goo-vetch, this is a most delicious lamb stew from Turkey. I

haven't included quantities for the meat and vegetables because it's one

of those things that can be made by feel, and as large or small as your

casserole is. You will need three layers of each ingredient. I like to

have the lamb and onions on top of the remaining vegies so that the

meat's juices drip down and flavour them.

 

Ingredients:

 

Green beans, topped and tailed

Zucchini, sliced

Green peppers, sliced

Eggplant, diced

Potatoes, sliced

Carrots, sliced

Tomatoes, peeled and sliced

Diced lamb

Onions, sliced

5-10 cloves garlic, sliced

1/2 cup water

3 bay leaves

salt and pepper

1-3 tbsp. butter, depending on the state of your arteries

 

Method:

 

1. In a large greased casserole, place a layer of beans, a layer of

zucchini, a layer of peppers, a layer of eggplant, a layer of potatoes,

a layer of carrots, a layer of tomatoes, and a layer of lamb. Season

well with salt and freshly-ground pepper, and top with a layer of

onions and some garlic slices. Repleat the layering process two more

times.

 

2. Dot casserole with butter. Cover. Place in 150oC oven, and leave

until oven is cool.

 

 

I’d gone for the Guvec which is a rich mixture of cubes of lean,

succulent lamb, aubergine, green peppers, tomatoes, onions and a hint

of garlic specially prepared in a clay oven dish.

 

It is accompanied by a separate dish of rice and a boat of hot chilli

sauce.  This actually resembled a lamb stew, although with distinctly

Turkish ingredients.  Aubergines are usually used in restaurants today

as the centrepiece of dull vegetarian alternatives, but in Turkish

dishes like this one, they are properly cooked to bring out their subtle

flavour

 

5. PILIC GUVEC £9.25

 

Small cubes of chicken pan-fried with mushrooms, onion, red pepper,

green pepper and herbs in a tomato sauce. Served in the traditional

way with rice.

 

Mixed Vegetable casserole  GUVEC

 

500 g Boneless lamb shoulder or shank

2 medium onions

3 medium potatoes

3 large tomatoes

4 Medium size green peppers

250 g Green beans

1 Medium Eggplant

200 g Zucchini

75 g Ocra

10 cloves garlic

¼ bunch Parsley

Salt

Black pepper

¾  cup + 1 ½  water

 

Cut meat into 4 cm (1 ½ inch) chunks. Cut onions, pared potatoes, 2

tomatoes

into quarters reserving one. Cut next 5 vegetables into 2 ½ cm (1 inch)

thick slices. Layer meat cuts on buttom of a casserole or a crack-pot.

Combine vegetables. Spread over meat. Arrange garlic cloves over

vegetables.

 

Top with tomato slices and parsley leaves. Season with salt and pepper.

Cover with an aluminum foil or grease paper.  Bake in a moderate oven

for 90 minutes. Serve hot.

 

 

After W.W.II, an annual Community Folk Festival was held in the Triple Cities:

Binghamton, Johnson City and Endicott, New York.  In 1950, the Folk festival

published a cookbook documenting recipes from 45 different nationalities of

people living in the area.

 

 

The Slavic section of the cookbook included a Yugoslavian recipe for "Djuvech"

subtitled "Vegetable, Rice and Meat Casserole."

 

Binghamton, New York (1950)

p. 168

 

Yugoslavian

 

Djuvech

(Vegetable, Rice and Meat Casserole)

 

2 lbs. rice

3 green peppers, sliced

3 onions, sliced

Salt, pepper, red paprika

2 lbs. fresh tomatoes, sliced (or 3 1/2 cups cooked tomatoes)

2 lbs. pork chops

 

Cook rice in salt water until half done; drain and put into baking dish.  Slice

peppers and onions in large pieces, fry in butter until golden brown; season

with salt, pepper and paprika.  Slice fresh tomatoes.  Mix tomatoes, peppers

and onions with rice.  Season meat with salt and pepper and fry in butter until

golden brown.  Alternate the meat and rice mixtures in the casserole. Add

approximately two cups of water. (If fresh tomatoes are used it is advisable to

add one can of tomato juice.)  Add salt and pepper to taste.  Cover baking dish

and bake in oven at 350 degrees until rice and meat are done. -- submitted by

 

Mrs. Natali Orloff

 

 

I'm not a "Turkish food historian" but the person may have been referring to

me.

 

 

Your message is excellently researched and I can add little to it except to

tell you that yes, "g}uve}c" is a Turkish word. It is attested to in Ottoman

times and it refers to a type of earthenware cooking pot and to a meat and

vegetable stew cooked in such a pot. If you do a Google

http://www.google.com search on "guvec" you'll fetch up over 300 links. Here

 

are a few:

 

http://www.recipesource.com/ethnic/africa/middle-east/turkish/guvec1.html

http://www.recipesource.com/ethnic/africa/middle-east/00/rec0015.html

http://www.recipehound.com/Recipes/3406.html

http://www.recipecottage.com/lamb/lamb-stew07.html

 

As you will notice, these are oven-baked stews in which meat (generally lamb

but I think one mentions beef) is layered with vegetables and cooked. Here

in Turkey I've frequently had "karides guvec", which is basically just

shrimp cooked in a spicy tomato sauce and served in a small one-portion

earthenware dish, usually with grated cheese added just before the end of

the cooking. I've also seen and heard of "tavuklu guvec", "tavuk" being

chicken. Sometimes the chicken is pieces of cut up chicken on the bone,

sometimes it's boneless lumps or slices of meat.

 

The important thing about all of these recipes is that they use pieces of

meat (or poultry or whatever) rather than ground-up meat and none of them

contain rice. I have never seen a guvec in Turkey cooked with rice and a

quick query to the resident expert on the subject (my wife) indicates that

anything with rice in it wouldn't be a "guvec" it would be a "pilav"

(pilaff).

 

Meatless vegetable stews by the way are usually called "t}url}u", which

means, among other things, "varied", "various", "diverse", "assorted", etc.

The ones I've seen were not cooked in the oven and were not layered.

 

--

 

Bob

 

Kanyak's Doghouse http://kanyak.com

 

 

Djuvec

 

- 1 big onion

- 1 paprika

- 1 can of peeled tomato

- broccoli

- sperci beans

- peas

- 1 cup of rice

- 3 potatoes

- optional Gouda/Woerden cheese

 

Cut onion in small pieces and bake in oil for 1 minute. Cut one

paprika in pieces and add. Cut the peeled tomato in smaller pieces

and add. Cook all this for 5 minutes on low fire. Add the other

vegetables and rice, together with 150ml of water and cook for 15

minutes.

 

Peel and cut the potatoes in pieces. Make in an oven pot layers of

vegetables mixed with pieces of potatoe. Put covered in the oven and

bake for 30 minutes, until the potatoe is done. Add the cheese on top

in the end and use the grill to melt.

 

Croatian cuisine includes sea foods from the coastal waters and meat

dishes such as cevapcici (sausage-shaped minced meat), raznijici

(grilled meat on skewers), sarma (minced rice and meat rolled in

cabbage leaves) and djuvec (stew).

 

 

Djuvec

 

celery, chili, eggplant, main_course, meat, parsley, rice, tomato,

vegetable, zucchini

 

 

Djuvech Macedonian way

 

500g seitan, broth, 2 carrots, 1 each parsley root, leek, onion and parsnip,

1/2 celery root, 250g brown rice, natural oil, parsley or celery leaves

 

Soak rice in cold water. Finely chop onion, slice leek and cut root

vegetable into cubes. Cut seitan into chunks. Fry onion on oil, add other

vegetables and rice. Pour in 3/4 l broth. When half cooked, place seitan

chunks on top. Pour in some water if needed. Bake at 175-200*C until rice

is tender. Sprinkle with chopped leaves.

 

Serve with lettuce, cucumber salad or beet root salad.

 

The word djuvech means both the meal and the earthen casserole in which

it is prepared.

 

 

 

2 small eggplants, sliced

2 tsps salt

4 tbsps butter

2 pounds lamb in 1 in cubes

2 sliced onions

1/2 lb beans broken in half

3 small zucchini in thick slices

4 medium tomatoes peeled adn quartered

1 tsp paprika

2 tbsps chopped parsley

 

 

Cacik  (Turkey) p 80 - cucumbers in yogurt

Cacik (sqiggles under both c's) is a yogurt dish

 

pilitsh guveci, sebzeli (Turkey) p 74

 

one 2 1/2 lb chicken cut in serving pieces

 

2 tsps slat

black pepper

one pound eggplant, peeled adn sliced

4tbsps olive oil

2 onions thinly sliced

2 small green peppers, seeded and cut into strips

2 small zucchini thinly sliced

4 ripe tomatoes peeled and sliced

1 8 oz can okra drained and sliced

3/4 lb string beans cut in pieces

1 1/2 cps chicken broth