My mother had a puzzling recipe for spanish rice in her recipe card file - probably what she used to serve the family when I was little.

 

Spanish Rice - Mom (Spanish-rice Skillet)

 

4 slices bacon

1/2 cup chopped onion

1/8 cup chopped green pepper

1 10 1/2 or 11 oz can condensed tomato soup

1/4 cup rice

1/4 cup water

2 whole cloves - yes, cloves.  Not cloves of garlic.  

     I don't know if Mom actually added them.

1 bay leaf (small)

1/4 tsp salt

 

Cut bacon in small pieces, fry until crisp in heavy skillet, remove.

 

Cook onion and green pepper in bacon fat until golden.  Add remaining ingredietns; cover tightly and cook 45 minutes.  Stir occasionally.   Remove cloves (actual cloves, I guess) and bay leaf; sprinkle crisp bacon over top.  Makes 2-3 servings.

 

 

 Recipe turns out to pretty much, with minor differences in quantities, come from the 1953 edition of the Better Homes and Gardens New Cook Book, p 174 (current ring bound edition).

 

4 slices of bacon

1 cup chopped onion

1/4 cup chopped green pepper

2 10 1/2 of 11 ounce cans condensed tomato soup

1/2 cup rice

1/2 cup water

4 whole cloves

1 bay leaf

1/2 tsp salt.

 

Cut bacon in small pieces, fry until crisp in heavy skillet; remove bacon.

 

Cook onion and green pepper in bacon fat until golden.  Add remaining ingredients; cover tightly and cook slowly 30 minutes.  Stir occasionally.  

 

Remove cloves and bay leaf; sprinkle crisp bacon over top.   Makes 5 or 6 servings.

 

One puzzler here is that the recipe calls for cloves.   Some particularly fancy sauces apparently do call for whole cloves of garlic that you remove before serving.   On my various chat mailing lists, people pointed out that many Spanish dishes have cloves, that cloves and cinnamon pretty much indicate arabic roots, and that if they'd meant cloves of garlic they probably would have said so.  Several people said that cloves are often cooked with rice to impart a particular flavor (nutty or tangy) and that it is particularly likely that cloves is meant because they are used with a bay leaf - to impart a sweet spicy tangy flavor.   That that is probably the case is indicated by the recipes below in which it is clear that cloves is meant.  

 

I suspect that this version of spanish rice has its roots in creole cooking, via popular southern dishes.  It would be nice to get Better Homes and Gardens to tell us where they got it.  Big broad grin.   I have asked them.  This dish an entirely different concept than the eastern Mediterranean/ central European dish dvuvetch that is baked in a clay cooking pot from similar ingredients, and of course the ingredients, few of which are native to either Spain or the eastern Mediterranean and central Europe, follow common paths of trade routes, migration and military conquest to where they end up.  

 

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Some old notes of my own:

 

A very similar dish to what is usually called Spanish rice is

popular in Louisiana, and it came from Spain via several complex

routes, ie, the Spanish who held Louisiana when our two groups of

Frenchpeople went there, one of the groups of Frenchpeople

themselves from the Caribbean islands where they previously were,

and slaves from the Caribbean and from Western Africa, which

is where most African slaves came from.  They also did not

customarily cook these ingredients outside of New Orleans for a long

time because they did not exist in the backwoods swamps where

these extremely poor people most often lived.  What is more, New

Orleans is mostly Spanish in architecture and in culture.

Louisiana tomato and rice dishes are not French, their ingredients

are not French, and they probably did not come from France,

though a myth in common circulation says that one of the major

groups of immigrants to Louisiana were ALL French aristocrats

and Italians had brought Spanish foods to the French court.  I

doubt there is substantial truth to any of it.  A similar dish,

called jolof or joloff, is popular in western Africa and probably

the Portuguese brought it there.   Western Africa had a version of

rice, but they did not have tomatoes nor peppers, and they did not

have the kind of rice that the rest of the world eats.  They also

were not Eastern Africa and did not trade with India via any route.

There is a web site on the history of joloff rice that has that

entire piece of geography mixed up.   

 

From Wikipedia.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jollof_rice

 

Jollof rice

 

Jollof rice

Jollof rice, also called 'Benachin' meaning one pot in the Wolof language, is a popular dish in many parts of West Africa. It is thought to have originated amongst members of the Wolof ethnic group in the Senegambia region[1][2] but has since spread to the whole of West Africa, especially Nigeria, Togo, Ghana, Sierra Leone and Liberia.[3][4] There are many variations of Jollof rice. The most common basic ingredients are rice, tomatoes and tomato paste, onion, salt, and red pepper. Beyond that, nearly any kind of meat, vegetable, or spice can be added.

Ingredients

The dish consists of easy cook or basmati rice, tomatoes and tomato paste, onion, salt, spices (such as nutmeg, ginger, Scotch bonnet (pepper), cumin) and chili pepper, to which optional ingredients can be added such as vegetables, meats and fish.

The cooking method for Jollof rice begins with using oil to fry finely-chopped onions, tomatoes and ground pepper (plus any other optional seasoning); adding stock; and then cooking the rice in this mixture so it takes up all the liquid. The rice takes on a characteristic orange colour from the mixture. It can be served with cooked meat, chicken, fish,or vegetables separately on the plate or they can be stirred in at the end. It is often served with fried plantain and salad.

Optional ingredients can include garlic, peas, thyme, African nutmeg, tea-bush leaves, partminger (an herb of the basil family), and/or curry powder.Jump to: navigation, search

 

 

 

http://www.epicurious.com/recipes/recipe_views/views/109084

 

SPANISH RICE

Of course, I don't believe this dish is Spanish at all, but rather Cajun from Louisiana. I made it quite often in the 1960s. Then — as now — in home cooking, one had to watch the cost, and rice was an inexpensive way to fill out a meal; after all, rice feeds half the world. In most American homes at the time, rice was served buttered with salt and pepper. This recipe gave rice a little style, made it a delicious "fancy" side dish to serve alongside grilled meat or chicken. I always look forward to having any leftovers as a cold salad for lunch the next day. If you like a little added spice, put some hot pepper sauce on the table.

 

1/4 cup olive oil

2 onions, finely chopped

2 green bell peppers, seeded, ribs removed, and diced

2 ribs celery, finely chopped

3 cloves garlic, minced

1 cup long-grain white rice

One 8-ounce can tomato sauce

2 cups water

1 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon black pepper

1 teaspoon cumin (optional)

 

Heat the olive oil in a large frying pan over medium heat, then add the onions, green peppers, and celery and sauté until soft, about 3 minutes. Add the garlic and cook for another minute while stirring. Add the rice and stir together to mix. Add the tomato sauce and the water carefully. Season with the salt and pepper, and add the cumin, if using. Bring to a boil, lower the heat, cover, and simmer for 20 to 25 minutes, until the rice is done, stirring once or twice.

 

Serves 8

Lost Recipes

October 2003

by Marion Cunningham

Knopf

 

rec.food.historic

 

anything with tomatoes in it was creole or Spanish in the

19th

> >century. There are some perfectly good indiginous tomato pilaf dishes it

> >imitates, such as Carolina "red rice," and "jumbalaya," which may have

> >Mediterranean antecedants, and possibly old Spanish-American ones such as

> >the Minorcan community in St. Augustine.

> >

> >Mark Zanger, author

> >The American Ethnic Cookbook for Students

> >www.ethnicook.com

 

http://southernfood.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_redrice.htm

 

Red Rice  

 

Definition: A seasoned rice dish made with tomatoes, red rice is a South Carolina dish. In other regions it goes by different names.

 

Also Known As: Creole Rice, Spanish Rice, Savannah Rice, Tomato Pilau.

 

 

In a saucepan, cook bacon until crisp; remove and crumble. Set aside. Pour off all but 3 to 4 tablespoons of the drippings. Cook onion and green pepper in drippings until tender. Add tomato soup, water, rice, bay leaf, and salt. Bring to a boil; cover and cook over low heat for 25 minutes, until rice is tender. Stir occasionally. Remove bay leaf and stir in bacon.

Makes about 4 to 6 side dish servings.

 

http://www.jfolse.com/mm_history.htm  (Note - I've not included all the contributing cultures)

 

The Cajun and Creole cultures are quite distinct and so are their cuisines. The Creoles were the offspring born in New

 

Orleans of the European aristocrats, wooed by the Spanish to establish New Orleans in the early 1690s. Second-born sons, who could not own land or titles in their native countries, were offered the opportunity to live and prosper in their family traditions here in the New World. It is believed the word Creole can be traced to one of two origins. First, the old Spanish word "Criallo" meaning a mixture of cultures or color such as in the word Crayola. Secondly, from the Latin word "Creare" meaning to create as in creating a new race. Although the first Creoles were documented in Mobile, Alabama in 1702, Natchitoches and New Orleans followed in 1714 and 1718 respectively. Today, the term Creole in New Orleans represents the native born children of the intermarriage of the early cultures settling the city. These include the Native American, French, Spanish, English, African, German and Italian and further defines the cuisine that came from this intermarriage.

 

The influences of classical and regional French, Spanish, German and Italian cooking are readily apparent in Creole cuisine. The terminologies, precepts, sauces and major dishes were carried over, some with more evolution than others, and provided a solid foundation for Creole cooking.

 

The Spanish, who actually played host to this new adventure, gave Creole food its spice, many great cooks and paella, which was the forefather of Louisiana's jambalaya. Paella is the internationally famous Spanish rice dish made with vegetables, meats and sausages. On the coastline, seafoods were often substituted for meats. Jambalaya has variations as well, according to the local ingredients available at different times of the year

 

The Italians were famous for their culinary talents. They were summoned to France by Catherine de Medicis to teach their pastry and ice cream making skills to Europeans. Many Creole dishes reflect the Italian influence and their love of good cooking.

 

From the West Indies and the smoke pots of Haiti came exotic vegetables and cooking methods. Braising, a slow-cooking technique, contributed to the development of our gumbos. Mirlitons, sauce piquantes and the use of tomato rounded out the emerging Creole cuisine.

 

Native Indians, the Choctaws, Chetimaches and Houmas, befriended the new settlers and introduced them to local produce, wildlife and cooking methods. New ingredients, such as corn, ground sassafras leaves or filé powder and bay leaves from the laurel tree all contributed to the culinary melting pot.

 

I would be remiss if I failed to mention the tremendous influence of "the black hand in the pot" in Creole cooking. The Africans brought with them the "kin gumbo" or okra plant from their native soil which not only gave name to our premier soup, but introduced a new vegetable to South Louisiana. Even more importantly, African Americans have maintained a significant role in development of Creole cuisine in the home as well as the professional kitchen.

 

http://listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0312d&L=ads-l&P=170

 

Date:         Mon, 22 Dec 2003 04:12:30 EST

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RED RICE

 

   "Red rice" is not in the latest DARE.  It certainly is an American

regional dish.

   OED has a 1929 "Spanish rice" citation from D. H. Lawrence, and that's it

for that.  OED has only one 1883 "red rice" citation, about Singapore.

   "Red rice" contains "tomato," so maybe the tomato man (Andrew Smith) knows

something...Augusta Archives gave me a "Reduced Prices" as a "red rice(s)"

hit.  "Mild-red Rice" was another "hit."  No early citation was found.

 

 

John Mariani's ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN FOOD AND DRINK (1999), pg. 267:

_red rice._  Also, "Spanish rice."  A southern seasoned rice dish made with

tomato to give it color.  It is often served with shrimp.

 

David Rosengarten's IT'S ALL AMERICAN FOOD (2003), pg. 298:

_Red Rice_  This side dish from Charleston and Savannah is not as well known

as Louisiana's Dirty Rice.  But a dish remarkably similar to Red Rice--namely,

the completely inaccurately named Spanish Rice--used to be a home and

cafeteria staple all over the country.  I love the great, dense, tomatoey mouthful of

tender rice that this Red Rice recipe yields.

 

AUGUSTA ARCHIVES)

   11 November 1976, AUGUSTA CHRONICLE, pg. 2, Food Section, col. 1:

   Where else but in Charleston can you get "Arthur Washington's Red Rice,"

"baked Crabmeat Remick" or "Flounder a la Gherardi."

   A gourmet's guide to the most prestigious restaurants in that city by the

sea is simply covered in a delightful cookbook entitled "Doin' the

Charleston," by Molly

Heady Sillers.

(Col. 2--ed.)

ARTHUR WASHINGTON'S

CHARLESTON RED RICE

(From Adger's Wharf)

4 slices bacon, cut in squares

1 small onion, chopped

1 bell pepper, chopped

1 can tomato paste

   salt and pepper to taste

4 cups cooked rice

(Col. 3--ed.)

   Fry the bacon in a large skillet until crisp.  Remove bacon and fry onion

and bell pepper in grease until tender.  Add tomato paste and cooked rice.

Season to taste and add the bacon just before serving.

   Serves 6 to 8.

 

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3289/is_12_169/ai_69241996

 

Prior to the Civil War, the South prided itself on grand plantation living. French, English, and Spanish ingredients and cooking techniques heavily influenced the cuisine of this Antebellum era. African slaves also affected the cooking; they were the cooks that seasoned and stirred the pot. These people brought okra, black-eyed peas, eggplant, and sesame seed to America.

 

African slaves used the American sweet potato--in place of yams--to create many Southern dishes. Slaves in South Carolina were experts at cultivating and preparing rice. Since Charleston, S.C., was the wealthiest city in America during the Antebellum era, the rice became known as "Carolina Gold." Popular dishes from this region include Hoppin' John, She Crab Soup, Shrimp Pilau and Rice Pudding.

 

African slaves and Native Americans also influenced Louisiana cooking, which is a mixture of Creole and Cajun foods. Creole cuisine is a blend of Spanish, Portuguese, German, and French cooking techniques, with African fare--rice, okra, tomatoes and greens--and local Louisiana ingredients. Creole is also known as "city" or "haute cuisine" and is usually eaten with good French wines.

 

Cajun cuisine was created by descendants of French Canadians who migrated to Louisiana. Cultivated from local swamp areas, Louisiana ingredients--duck, frog legs, alligator pecans, cane syrup, and yams-are used to make Cajun food. Cajun cuisine is also known as Louisiana country cooking, which is traditionally eaten with locally produced beer.

 

No other American region has marketed its foods to the world like the South, as evidenced by chef and restaurateur Paul Prudhomme, who has put Louisiana cuisine on the map. Prudhomme has produced a full line of regional spices and seasonings, along with prepared meats such as Andouille sausage (pork, potato and onion ingredients), and Smoked Cajun Pork Tasso, which are used to flavor Gumbo and Jambalaya dishes.

 

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3289/is_6_171/ai_87510933

 

Cajun and Creole cuisines - Formulation & Ingredient Challenges - Brief Article

Prepared Foods,  June, 2002  by Wilbert Jones

 

There was a time when Cajun and Creole cooking were distinct and separate. However, over a period of many years, both of these melting pot cuisines have merged together. Today, the average American cannot distinguish one from the other.

 

Cajun History

 

Cajun cooking was created by the descendants of the French Canadians (called Arcadians), who migrated to Southern Louisiana around the mid-1700s.

 

 

http://www.congocookbook.com/c0026.html

 

Jollof Rice

 

from Western Africa

 

One often hears that Jollof Rice (or Jolof Rice, Djolof Rice) is a

Nigerian dish; indeed it is often made by Nigerians. However, it has

its origins among the Wolof people of Senegal and Gambia who make a

rice and fish dish they call Ceebu Jën. Since Nigeria has the largest

population of any African country, it's safe to say that most of the

people who make and eat Jollof Rice are probably Nigerian.

 

There are many variations of Jollof Rice. The most common basic ingredients

 are: rice, tomatoes and tomato paste, onion, salt, and red pepper. Beyond

that, nearly any kind of meat, fish, vegetable, or spice can be added.

 

What you need

 

oil for frying

one chicken (and/or a pound or two of stew meat), chopped into bite-sized pieces

one or two onions, finely chopped

salt, black pepper, cayenne pepper (to taste)

 

Flavoring add-ins (to taste)

chile pepper, chopped

garlic

thyme

bay leaf

ginger

cinnamon

curry powder

two cups chicken broth or chicken stock, or beef broth or beef stock

(or Maggi® cubes and water)

two or three ripe tomatoes, chopped

 

Vegetable add-ins

sweet green pepper (or bell pepper), chopped

string beans or green beans

green peas

carrots, chopped

cabbage, chopped

four cups rice

one small can tomato paste

 

Meat add-ins

cooked ham

shrimp or prawns (or dried shrimp or dried prawns)

 

Garnishes

fresh parsley, chopped

cilantro, chopped

lettuce, shredded

hard-boiled egg, sliced

 

What you do

 

 

Heat two tablespoons of oil in a large skillet. Stir-fry the chicken (or beef)

in the oil until it is browned on all sides. Remove the meat from the oil and

set aside. Add the onions, the salt, pepper, cayenne pepper, and one or two of

 the flavoring add-ins (if desired) to the skillet and fry the mixture until

the onions begin to become tender. Remove the onion mixture from the skillet

and set aside with the meat.

 

In a dutch oven or large covered saucepan, bring the broth and two cups of water

to a simmer. Place the meat and onion mixture into the dutch oven and cover.

 

In the same skillet used for the meat and onions, stir-fry the tomatoes and one or

two of the vegetable add-ins. Continue frying the mixture until the vegetables are

partly cooked, then add them to the meat, onions, and broth in the dutch oven.

 

Again in the same skillet, combine the rice and the tomato paste. Over low heat,

stir until the rice is evenly coated with the tomato paste. The rice should end up

 a pink-orange color. Add the rice to the dutch oven and stir gently.

 

Cover the dutch oven and cook the mixture over a low heat until the rice is done

and the vegetables are tender (maybe half an hour). Stir gently occasionally and

check to see that the bottom of the pot does not become completely dry. Add warm

water or broth (a quarter cup at a time) as necessary to help rice cook. Adjust

seasoning as needed. If desired, add one of the meat add-ins while the dish is

cooking. (Shrimp cook very quickly and should not be over-cooked or they will

become tough; ham can be added at any time.)

 

Serve with one or two of the garnishes.

 

WEST AFRICA

 

Jollof Rice

 

Jollof Rice is among the best known of West African dishes not

only because it is delicious and easy to prepare, but because the

ingredients are readily available in Western countries! Its origin,

however, remains a bone of contention between several West African

nations. There are many regional cooking variations — this version

is my mother's!

 

500 g (1 lb) lean beef or chicken

Salt and ground white pepper, to taste

Vegetable oil for frying

1L (1-3/4 pt) stock or water with 3 crushed stock cubes

3 large onions, finely chopped

4 cloves garlic, peeled and finely chopped

2-3 chillies (hot peppers), finely chopped

4 large tomatoes, blanched, peeled and blended or mashed

45 g (3 tablespoons) tomato paste

250 g (8 oz) each of assorted chopped vegetables, e.g. carrots,

    green beans,

    mushrooms and capsicums (sweet or bell peppers)

500 g (1 lb) long-grain rice

Lettuce, parsley or fresh coriander (cilantro)

    and hard-boiled eggs to garnish

 

Cut meat or chicken into 5 cm (2 in) cubes or small pieces and

season with salt and pepper. Cover and allow to stand for 1-2 hours.

Heat oil in fry-pan and fry the meat or chicken pieces until brown.

Remove meat from oil and add to the stock in a large, heavy-based

saucepan. Simmer on low heat until meat begins to soften, then

remove from heat.

 

Drain excess oil from fry pan leaving enough oil to fry onions, garlic

and chillies (hot peppers) until golden. Add tomatoes, tomato paste,

 half the combined vegetables and 250 mL (8 fl oz) of stock from

the meat mixture. Stir well, adjust seasoning and simmer on low heat

for 5-7 minutes. Add this vegetable sauce to the meat mixture in the

saucepan and simmer gently. Finally, stir in the uncooked, long-grain

rice. Adjust the seasoning again, cover and simmer slowly on low

 

heat for about 15 minutes.

 

Arrange the remaining vegetables on top of the rice and continue to

simmer until the rice absorbs all the stock, softens and cooks, and

the meat is tender. It may be necessary to sprinkle additional water

mix to help the rice cook. If so use small amounts at a time of

approximately 250 mL (8 fl oz) lightly salted water.

 

Serve hot, garnished with chopped lettuce, parsley or fresh coriander

(cilantro) and hard-boiled eggs.

 

Serves 4-6

 

 

Jollof Rice / West Africa

 

(cook in a 10 inch skillet)

 

 

2 Lb. cooked meat: chicken, shrimp, pork in:

 

1/2 C oil

 

In a separate soup kettle:

sautÈ in 1/4 C oil:

 

1/2 C each: chopped onions, green peppers

1/2 Tsp. grated ginger in

1/4 C oil until soft.

Add 1 16 oz can whole stewed tomatoes.

simmer for 5 minutes.

 

Add:

 

12 oz tomato paste

2 quarts water

1 T salt

1/2 tsp. each black pepper and thyme

1-2 tsp. crushed red pepper flakes.

 

Add to this mix the cooked meat and simmer 20 minutes longer.

 

In a 2 quart saucepan cook:

 

2 C white rice in

5 C chicken stock

 

Combine the sauce with the rice, pour the Jollof Rice in a deep

platter, arranging the meat in the center.

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.congocookbook.com/c0026.html

Joloff Rice

 

Curry in Western Africa?

 

Does it seem strange to see curry powder in a recipe from Western Africa? Curry

dishes are common in Eastern Africa, where there is a large Indian and West Asian

population and a long history of trade across the Indian Ocean. Curry came to

Western Africa, particularly Nigeria, during the age of British colonialism. British

colonial officials who worked in India often acquired a taste for curry that they

took with them when they were transferred to Africa.

 

 

 

Curry in Western Africa?

 

Does it seem strange to see curry powder in a recipe from

Western Africa? Curry dishes are common in Eastern Africa, where

there is a large Indian and West Asian population and a long history

of trade across the Indian Ocean. Curry came to Western Africa,

particularly Nigeria, during the age of British colonialism.

British colonial officials who worked in India often acquired

a taste for curry that they took with them when they were

transferred to Africa.

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Same web page as above

 

Jollof Rice, Red Rice, Spanish Rice

 

The basic Jollof Rice recipe (with bacon or ham in place of chicken) is identical to,

 and probably the origin of, a dish called "Red Rice" in the Southeastern United

States (and usually called "Spanish Rice" in the rest of the country). To make

"Red Rice": fry a quarter pound of chopped bacon or ham in a skillet; remove the

meat (you might want to remove some, but not all, of the fat) and use the fat and

drippings remaining in the skillet to stir-fry a chopped onion (and maybe some

chopped celery); reduce the heat, add a cup or two of rice and stir until the rice

is evenly coated; stir in a chopped tomato, water (two cups for each cup of rice),

and spices; bring to a boil, then cover and simmer until the rice is nearly tender--

about twenty minutes; stir in a spoonful of tomato paste and top with the bacon or

ham, cover and simmer on very low heat until the rice is done, or transfer the skillet

to a warm oven.

 

 

It is possible to buy poppy and lotus seed products and hibiscus tea in orienta

l markets. If you make tacos with ground lamb and flour tortillas, you will have

a common Egyptian meal. "Spanish Rice" from Mexico is almost identical to a

popular Egyptian dish. Favorite beverages of the Egyptians, beer and wine, are

widely available. It is also easy to find chickpeas (a.k.a. garbanzos or ceci beans)

 and lentils. Wheat bread was common, and kamut and spelt, strains of wheat grown

in ancient times, are becoming increasingly available (primarily in health food stores

 and specialty sections of supermarkets).

 

The English do not have English muffins, they have crumpets. In China there is no

chop suey; turkeys are scarce as hen's teeth in Turkey; and Spanish rice is not

served in Spain.

 

http://southernfood.about.com/cs/cajuncuisine/a/cajunrecipes.htm

Cajun Food, About, from about.com

 

"First, you make a roux," is the standard opening line for many

Louisiana recipes. There's no denying the French heritage in Louisiana

cuisine, Cajun cuisine in particular. Because of the scarcity of many

things in early Louisiana, the Cajun roux was made with oil and flour

and a bisque made without cream, a far cry from the French version of

butter, flour, and cream.

 

According to Mathe Allain from the Center for Louisiana Studies, beef

was tough and fibrous before the twentieth century. The French grillade,

broiled meat, became beef steak cubes in a rich gravy and served over rice.

Chickens were not eaten until past their laying times, thus the tenderizing

gumbos and fricassees.

 

Like the poor Southerners of the nineteenth century, the Cajun diet depended

 on what was available -- cornbread, molasses, salted meat and beans, and

greens in season. Only people living along the coast had seafood, and rice --

 now a daily staple -- wasn't introduced until near the end of the nineteenth

 century. Foods like crawfish, and the popular seasoning mixture of onions,

celery, and green peppers were not widely used until the twentieth century,

but have fast become a tradition.

 

Chefs like Paul Prudhomme, John Folse, Justin Wilson, and Emeril Lagasse have

certainly played a big part in bringing Louisiana cuisine to all of us through

cookbooks, products, and television.

 

http://www.lafayettetravel.com/culture/food/ Food

 

Cajun vs. Creole Food

 

The words Cajun and Creole are not interchangeable, even where food is

involved. Many Cajun and Creole dishes are based on a roux and use some

of the same ingredients such as cayenne pepper, okra, sweet potatoes,

squashes, beans, corn and sassafras (bottled as filé, a topping for gumbo).

 

But differences exist between the two types of cuisines. The word Creole

has many meanings, but here it implies a cultural mix of West-European,

African, Caribbean and native Indian. To most south Louisiana blacks,

Creoles are of a multiracial heritage with African and Caribbean roots.

These Creoles have produced zydeco music and a distinctive cuisine with

ties to Acadiana, New Orleans and the American Southeast.

 

Many regional African-Creole traditions were preserved by black

Louisianians with a variety of "iron-pot" delicacies - greens cooked

with fatback, Caribbean-style cowpeas and rice, gumbos with pork sausage,

 chicken giblets and seafood, and a host of stews - forming a style of

cooking using the humblest ingredients and resulting in the richest

flavors.

 

Creole cuisine got its start in the early 1700s in New Orleans and eventually

found its way along the bayous of South Louisiana. In the 1790s, thousands of

 

French colonists fled Santo Domingo (present-day Haiti) for New Orleans to

escape the terrors of the slave rebellion led by L'Ouverture. The refugees

strongly influenced local cuisine by bringing their distinctive Caribbean spice

combinations and cooking techniques.

 

Around the same time as the Caribbean refugees were arriving, the French

Acadians who were expelled from Acadie (present-day Nova Scotia, Canada)

arrived in South Louisiana. Settling in remote areas away from New Orleans,

this geographic and cultural isolation led to the development of a distinctive

cuisine.

 

The Acadians were farmers, so their early cuisine was based on corn, rice,

root vegetables, chicken and pigs. The bayous and wetlands along which they

 lived provided an abundance of rabbits, turtles, finfish, shellfish, ducks

and geese.

 

The Acadians learned to use corn from the local Indians, stewing it with

sweet peppers, onions and eventually tomatoes to create maque-chou. They

also dried the corn, ground it and cooked it in a skillet to make coush-coush,

a traditional breakfast food. The area's African-descended inhabitants

contributed okra for use as a vegetable or to add to gumbo.

 

Some of this Acadian style of cooking found its way into Creole cuisine.

The Picayune Creole Cook Book, published in 1901 and the most authoritative

reference on traditional Creole cuisine, includes recipes for a few Acadian

dishes - pork sausages, red and white boudins, andouille and several recipes

for crawfish. Crawfish étouffée does not appear in the cookbook because it

wasn't created until the 1920s in Breaux Bridge, now known as the Crawfish

Capital of the World.

 

In Breaux Bridge's Hebert Hotel, Mrs. Charles Hebert and her two daughters,

Yolie and Marie, made the first crawfish étouffée by cooking the tails in a

lidded pot with crawfish fat and smothered down with onions and pepper. The

Heberts passed on the recipe to their friend Aline Guidry Champagne, who

opened the Rendez-Vous Cafe in Breaux Bridge in 1947 and introduced the dish

to her customers.

 

Several other cultural groups contributed to the culinary melting pot of South

Louisiana. The cooks for English, Scottish and Irish plantation owners used

what was grown and raised on the plantation as well as delicacies that

arrived at the port of New Orleans from the Caribbean and Europe. St. M

artinville and other towns near Lafayette had French settlers who were

not Acadian arriving from France or the French West Indies.

 

Creole and Cajun cuisines continue to evolve and even merge into what might

be called "South Louisiana cuisine."

 

In recent years, crawfish dishes may have become the food most associated

with the Acadian culture. But for day-in, day-out eating, there is nothing

more popular than rice and gravy. In fact, a true Cajun can look at a field

 of growing rice and tell how gravy it will take to cover it when all the

rice is cooked. Whole generations of people have lived and died in south

Louisiana and never known that some people in other places serve a meal that

does not include rice and gravy. Here, the concept never enters the mind.

 

Rice, or course, has become one of the major agricultural crops of the

southwest Louisiana prairies since German farmers came here in the late 1800s.

It remains one of our leading exports, but a lot of it finds its way into our

kitchens. A little bit of it gets stuffed into boudin. Sometimes we'll put

 seafood on it or in our gumbo, but mostly we boil it or steam it and serve

it with gravy on top of it. Lots of us down here think that rice and gravy

is the perfect dish.

 

http://meme.essortment.com/acadianhistory_rubg.htm

Acadian history in Louisiana

 

Over time the Acadians in Louisiana became known as Cajuns. Intermarriages had

not particularly diluted their culture, though this exposure did lead to some

modification in their language. Now there were Spanish, English, and some African

 influences; and the language gradually became uniquely Cajun, quite different

from orthodox French, Quebec French, or that spoken in other French colonies.

Cajun culture remained dominant because of the strong emphasis on family ties,

the same emphasis that had helped them stay the course throughout the period of

 the expulsion.

 

Though we will look into this evolution of Louisiana cuisines, I feel it is

necessary to first understand from whence it came. Knowing the foundation of

Cajun and Creole cooking will ensure a clear understanding of the direction we

have chosen to take.

 

 

Southern Louisiana has two rich histories and two unique cuisines. The Creole cuisine

with its rich array of courses indicating its close tie to European aristocracy, and

Cajun cuisine with its one pot meals, pungent with the flavor of seafood and game

 

As in the Southwest, the general American aversion to spicy foods is suspended in

Louisiana: cayenne peppers and chiles from Latin America have found a regular

place in the Cajun larder. They were probably imported by the Spanish, who briefly

occupied the area. Likewise, Native American influence is strongly felt in many

recipes.

 

Louisiana http://www.gatewayno.com/history/louisiana.html

 

People of Louisiana

 

There is a rich diversity of peoples in Louisiana (See Ancestry under

Louisiana Demographics). They include the original Indian inhabitants, plus

 the descendants of a variety of settlers, among whom were the French,

Spanish, English, German, Acadians, West Indians, Africans, Irish and

Italians and now include almost every nationality on earth.

 

The original French colonists were soon joined by the Spanish and Acadians,

and later by French aristocrats fleeing slave revolts in the West Indies or

the horrors of the French Revolution. As part of Louisiana's French legacy

counties are called "parishes" and the Napoleonic Code (rather than Common

Law) holds sway in the state's courtrooms.

 

Ironically, it was the Spanish who built many of the colonial structures that

still stand in the "French Quarter" of New Orleans, and Spanish is still spoken

in some communities, particularly in St. Bernard Parish below New Orleans.

Hundreds of German families were recruited in 1719 by the Company of the West

(which held the French royal charter for the development of Louisiana), and

those sturdy pioneers settled upriver from New Orleans along a section of the

Mississippi River that is still called the Cote des Allemands ("German Coast").

 The parishes north of Lake Pontchartrain (the sixth largest lake in the U.S.)

and east of the Mississippi River were once a part of British West Florida,

occupied by English planters and military in the 1700s. Bernardo de Galvez,

Louisiana's Spanish governor and an American ally in the Revolution,

prevented the further development of a British stronghold in the Mississippi

Valley by capturing British forts at Manchac and Baton Rouge in 1779. Some

years later, in 1810, citizens of the "Florida Parishes" staged the West Florida

 Rebellion against Spanish authority in the region. They established the West

Florida Republic, which enjoyed independence briefly before joining the American

 territory that had been acquired from France through the Louisiana Purchase of

1803.

 

Among the other nationalities that have settled in Louisiana are the Yugoslavians

 who made a success of oyster harvesting along the Gulf Coast and the Hungarians

who became cultivators of strawberries and other crops in the Albany area. Free

blacks amassed some of Louisiana's largest land holdings prior to the Civil War

and blacks have major contributions to Jazz and Louisiana cuisine in particular.

 And many of Louisiana's annual festivals are celebrations of particular ethnic

contributions to the "cultural gumbo" of this unique state.

 

 

Creole food evolved from a mixture of French, Spanish, African, and Caribbean

cuisines. Creoles were rich planters and aristocrats; their food was more

"upscale" than Cajun food.

 

Cajun food comes from the land. Cajuns trapped or hunted for their meat and

grew their vegetables and fruits. The Acadians brought their cooking techniques

 from France to Nova Scotia to Louisiana. They adapted what they knew to what

 they were given. Cajun food is native to Louisiana because the ingredients

are native to Louisiana.

 

Since the Creoles were already established in Louisiana when the Cajuns arrived,

 the Cajuns simply absorbed and changed cooking styles and ingredients to suit

themselves, a process that continues today with "new Louisiana cooking".

 

There has always been much crossing over of the two cuisines. The Spanish dish

 paella, for example, may have evolved into a Creole dish called jambalaya, but

 the Cajuns ate it too, and changed the ingredients according to what vegetable

 was in season or what game was easy to catch. Bouillabaisse, brought here

by the Creoles, developed into gumbo with the help of the Cajuns and some

local ingredients.

 

Many of the ingredients and seasonings are the same in Cajun and Creole cooking

because of the natural availability and the melding of styles. Most Louisiana

dishes are made with rice, a leading Louisiana crop. Cajuns contributed the

"Holy Trinity" of onions, green bell peppers, and celery which are seasonings

easily grown in the Louisiana climate. Thyme, garlic, basil, and bay leaves are

 used extensively in both kinds of cooking.

 

http://www.vivelacajun.com/Louisiana%20History/Part5.htm

A Spanish Flavored French Quarter

 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF LOUISIANA

 

V.  SPANISH RULED LOUISIANA

 

A SPANISH FLAVORED "FRENCH QUARTER"

 

On October 28, 1768, French colonists of the unruly and largely self-governed

French colony of Louisiana rebelled against the Spanish and their self-imposed

 rule over the colony.  It was known as the Rebellion of 1768 and ended with

the execution of Louisiana's French leaders.

 

With their rule, the Spanish brought order and architecture to the colony

of Louisiana.  In ca.1778, they also brought in settlers from the Canary

Islands (a Spanish territory off the coast of northwest Africa), Spain and

 Italy.  They, too, were "Frenchafied": Bolognini became Bouligny, Garrido

 became Gary, Villatoro became Viator, etc.

 

MANUMISSION OR EMANCIPATION

 

The freeing of slaves in Louisiana was not that uncommon.   Notary "Acts"

or records of manumission (documents of freedom) in the 1700s and early 1800s

 reflect that there were always free men of color in the colony.   Civil and

Catholic Church records designated "mulatto" as one half white, "quadroon" as

 three fourths white, and "octaroon" as seven eighths white.  There are also

"Acts" of free men of color buying and selling slaves, or buying freedom of a

 family member.  Many American Indians were also slaves and were sometimes

designated as free men of color, as well.

 

 

"CODE NOIR" AND THE SPANISH

 

On the books French Law, "Code Noir", was very harsh in dealing with slavery.

However, it was not unusual for Louisiana colonial men to make provisions not

only for legitimate offspring and the married partner, but also to grant freedom

 and provisions for his illegitimate mixed race children and their mother.

The Louisiana archives abound with such documents.  The Spanish takeover from

1763 until 1803 encouraged, by self purchase or otherwise, the manumission or

freedom of slaves and discouraged selling off family members.  The Louisiana

Purchase by America all but ended that practice until Lincoln's Emancipation

Proclamation.

 

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

 

In 1776 the Spanish Governor of Louisiana Benardo Galvez formed his own Revolutionary

War Army.  Galvez's troops consisted of Spanish, who had lost territory to England;

French, many of who were displaced from Alabama and Mississippi; and "Cajuns", who

had a score to settle with the English.  They marched across the Gulf Coast

defeating the English troops from Baton Rouge to Pensacola and recapturing

Spain's colonial territory.  Their descendants have a Galvez Chapter of Sons and

Daughters of the American Revolution.

 

THE SPANISH RESCUE

 

Spain needed Catholic settlers to ward off intrusion of Protestant Americans moving

west.  Willing Spaniards were hard to find.  Spain was told exiled Acadians were

unhappy in their sojourn in feudal France.  Spain made a deal with the French to

send ships to rescue 1,565 Cajuns.  When the Cajuns arrived in 1785, they were

given land grants along the Lafourche and Teche bayous  and in southwest Louisiana,

 where they were reunited with their families.  The Acadians, exiled for 20 years,

had found a new home on the North American continent.

 

OFF WITH THEIR HEADS

 

In 1789 the French Revolution brought aristocrats, fleeing mob execution, to

French-speaking Louisiana.  Folklore and mystery surround the origins of one such

refugee, Louis Chachere called deCharette.  Among the many stories, he was rumored

to be a brother of Louis XVI and heir to the French throne, a Comte, a Baron or a

cousin of the King.  Whatever his origin, his children were said to have a definite

 likeness to the Bourbons.

 

A SECOND BLOODY REBELLION

 

In Saint Domingue of 1791 mulatto freedmen sought an alliance with black slaves --

who outnumbered the white inhabitants ten to one -- to revolt against whites who

refused to seat mulattos in the Assembly of the French colony.   Devastation

followed as plantations were pillaged and burned and atrocities were committed

on all sides.  By 1794 whites and mulattos were forced to flee from the island

renamed Haiti.  The population of New Orleans doubled overnight.  The losses

incurred by planters were reimbursed by the French government, allowing them to

start over in Spanish Louisiana.  Their expertise as sugar planters brought wealth

to themselves and others.

 

THE "PARIS" OF THE AMERICAS

 

New Orleans doubled in size with the influx of refugees.  It was fast becoming a

cultural center, but full of the excitement and danger of a frontier town.  The

first opera in America was presented at the New Orleans Opera House in 1797.

Creole (which at that time referred only to "white" descendants of Europeans, but

has come to denote "mulatto" in today's dictionary) society sent their sons to be

educated in France.  

 

COTTON BALLS AND SUGAR

 

Cotton and sugar plantations flourished along the Mississippi River.  More and

more slaves were imported to support the lifestyles of the richest men in

America.  A number of Cane River Plantations were owned by mulattoes (Caucasian/

black extraction).  Free men and women of color also bought, worked and sold slaves.

 

   Records are in Notary Archives.

 

 

 

http://emeagwali.com/nigeria/cuisine/nigerian-jollof-rice.html

 

The Flavor of Nigeria

 

http://www.sallys-place.com/food/ethnic_cusine/africa.htm

 

Africa (ethnic cuisine)

 

 

 

Uprooted from the mother continent, West Africans did not leave behind the

 idea of the family nor the legacy of good eating. In the Americas, West

Africans brought their proficiency in metallurgy, pottery, leather work

and weaving. They also carried with them okra, sesame, watermelon seeds,

 black-eyed peas, African yams and a preference for spices and seasonings

 such as peppercorn, cinnamon, cloves, cumin, cardamom, ginger, chili

peppers and turmeric. West African cooking did not transform with the

migration to the Americas. It evolved as people adapted to the new environment

 and availability of ingredients. Whether on the shores of West Africa or

in the Mississippi Delta recipes evolved while still linking together family

and West African ancestors creating cultural and familial unity.

 

There is a crescent, sinuous imaginary line that begins on Mauritania's coast

 and sweeps downward along Africa's palm fringed beaches from the buff-colored

 sand dunes of Senegal and Mauritania, through the lagoons of the Ivory Coast

 and beyond, to Togo, Benin and Nigeria, then down to the forested regions of

 countries with names like drumbeats: Congo, Gabon, Angola. The same line

continues to sweep across the Atlantic, carrying with it music, gesture,

speech, dance, joie de vivre, and yes...food. Culinary Historian Jessica

Harris

 

African cuisine combines traditional fruits and vegetables, exotic game and fish

 from the oceans that surrounds her, and a marinade of cultures, colonies, trade

 routes, and history. Africa is a whole continent, from arid desert, to sub

tropical wetlands, plains, and the oft- featured movie "jungle." Films have

given Westerners an exotic view of Africa, from the big game hunter movies of

 the 1950's to recent movies showing colonization such as "Out of Africa." Woven

 within these movies are scenes of colonial food traditions, from the British to

 the Dutch, glimpses of native cuisine. Western views of Africa then, even if we

 have not traveled there, comprise a combination of the exotic, environmental

preservation, hunting, and local cultivation.

 

African cuisine, formerly not well known in the West, is growing in popularity

as immigrants bring the dishes of their country to small family restaurants in

the West. To a traveler, it would be impossible to categorize "African food"

just as it would be impossible to state the cuisine of any continent by one name.

 If you are intrepid, and take a safari tour from Kenya, your culinary experience

 will be much different from eating at the French and British influenced

restaurants of Johannesburg, tasting Doro Wat of Ethiopia, Portuguese inspired

spices of Angola and Mozambique, or the coconut and fish stews of Nairobi. Yet,

 all are part of African cuisine.

 

Northern Muslim Africa, along the Mediterranean from Morocco to Egypt is part of

 the Mediterranean culinary rim. Saharan Africa is for the most part subsistence.

 This article will cover sub Saharan Africa. Certain regions are distinctive for

 the development of indigenous cuisine, or incorporation of outside influences.

These were distinctive by trade, colonization, or adaptation of imported foods,

such as the New World peppers, peanuts, and corn. They are: Ethiopia, Nigeria,

East and West Africa, the former Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique,

and South Africa. You, the adventurous traveler, are encouraged to seek out local

restaurants, outside of the large tourist hotels, to savor African cuisine.

 

Settlers influenced East Africa by importing their cuisine almost in its entirety.

 The first settlers, were the Arabs, settling in the coastal areas. The many pilaf

 dishes, rice cooked in the Persian steamed and spiced manner remain. Pomegranate

juice, saffron, cloves, cinnamon, all spice East African food; showing the Arabic

origins. Eventually, and many centuries later, the British, and their imported

workers from India conspired to forever influence the East African diet,

including boiled vegetable, and curries.

 

The Portuguese influence upon Angola and Mozambique is pervasive and subtle. They

were the first Europeans to move to Africa south of the Sahara in the 15th century.

 Settling so long, this relatively inconspicuous European country influenced

African life more than the more direct and intrusive British, French, and Dutch.

 Just as in their Indian colony of Goa, the Portuguese brought the European sense

 of flavoring with spices, and techniques of roasting and marinating to African

foods. These influences blended with local cuisines and ingredients to produce

subtle and aromatic recipes. Separated across the tip of the continent, Mozambique

 is more fish based and Atlantic. Angola is reflective of the west side, with drier

climate, and corresponding change in ingredients. Catholicism also introduced to

the Portuguese African cuisine the sense of feast and fast days, meatless Fridays

, changing the native African cuisine. The Portuguese brought from their Asian

 colonies, the orange, lemon, and lime. From Brazil, another colony, they brought

 the foods of the new world; chilies, peppers, corn, tomato, pineapples, banana,

and the domestic pig. The Portuguese gardeners, farmers, fishermen profoundly

influenced native stews.

 

In addition to growing cashews, Mozambique is most known for its piripiri, or hot

 pepper dishes. Using the small tremendously hot peppers of that country, sieved

lemon juice is warmed, adding red freshly picked chilies, simmered exactly five

minutes, then salted and pounded to a paste. This pulp is returned to heat with

more lemon juice and eaten over meats, fish, and shellfish...and hot! In a way,

this simple condiment of blended techniques and imported ingredients is a perfect

 exam example of African food sensibilities.

 

Joloff rice

 

Gombo the West African word for Okra, American derivative of any stew using okra is

called a gumbo

 

Countries along the southern coast of West Africa. T

here are lots of little countries, many of which have changed names in recent

years. One of those countries is Benin, formerly known as Dahomey.

 

Back to Benin. Officially the République du Bénin, this small wedge of West Africa

 has had many names and lots of governments.

 

Fairly obviously, both from the country’s official name and from the name of the

recipe below, when it came time to colonize this area, the French moved in. But

the French weren’t the first Europeans in the area, just the first who wanted to

 settle down. The first European arrivals were the Portuguese, and they came for

 slaves.

 

People from nearly every tribe in West Africa passed through the coastal town of

 Ouidah. However, this entire coast was the scene of such trading and most of the

 wealth of the Dahomey empire was built on the slave trade. The Dahomey empire

was organized for war and capturing slaves, and any slaves they didn’t need they

sold to Europeans. One Dahomeyan king even decided that they should reduce the

number of human sacrifices because it cut into the slave trade.

 

The Portuguese were buying long after most other European countries had banned

slavery, and it was British interference and French settlement that finally put

an end to the slaving days of the Dahomeyans. (Though not to the end of slaving

in Africa, alas—northern Arabs still make frequent runs to the south to capture

slaves).

 

Her lunch menu may not sound all that exotic, especially if you've eaten in the

American South or the Caribbean. Nigeria is in West Africa, where most of the

slave trade occurred, and West African cooking became the basis for New World

cuisine wherever Africans settled.

 

It's a cuisine that relies heavily on meats (in Nigeria, that's often goat),

chicken and fish along with legumes such as groundnuts (peanuts) and beans and

 starchy vegetables such as cassava, rice and yams. Green vegetables, especially

 okra and spinach (or other cooked greens), are also popular, as they are in

our Southern cooking.

 

(African yams, incidentally, are distinct from American sweet potatoes, which

are sometimes called yams. African yams are very large, pale-fleshed and barely

 sweet, and are not often seen in American markets.)

 

When Nigerians crave "home cooking," though, the specific dishes won't

necessarily be the same, says Kehinde, because favorites differ among tribes and

 even within tribes.

 

For instance, the Hausa people of northern Nigeria favor meat kebabs; the Ibos

 of the south are partial to luxurious stews of fish, shrimp, crab, lobster,

rice and vegetables -- precursors of Louisiana gumbo or jambalaya. In the

central part of the country, the Yoruba people, to which the Kehindes belong,

 enjoy stewed meats but divide on whether to serve mashed yams or mashed

cassava alongside. Aderonke grew up with yams; Modupe's family must have cassava.

 

Onions, tomatoes, ginger and a variety of hot aromatic peppers. are common

ingredients in stews and soups. In addition to these are a variety of herbs

and indigenous ingredients such as palm nut, ogbono and Egusi which impart

body and flavor to West African soups.

 

 

     South America is the home of the tomato and has been cultivated by Indians

in the Andes Mountains since prehistoric times.  It moved from South America

to Mexico more then 3,000 years ago, when settlers migrated to this area of

the world.  The Tomato was introduced to European society in the 16th Century

and was first grown in Italy in 1550.  Tomatoes are a fruit, not a vegetable and

 belong to the same family as the poisonous nightshade family.  For a long time

in the U.S. they were thought to be poisonous and inedible until the 19th century.

 

  The tomato is now cultivated throughout the world.

 

he Well-Traveled Tomato

 

The tomato has circled the globe like no other vegetable or fruit. The native

populations of South America were the first to encounter tomatoes. Then,

in the sixteenth century, the conquistadors took fresh tomatoes to Europe, where

 they were admired for qualities other than taste for quite some time. Europeans

 thought they might be helpful as an aphrodisiac but hesitated to eat them on a

 regular basis. In fact, tomatoes were considered poisonous and well into the

nineteenth century, some cookbooks advised people to boil them several hours,

for safety's sake.

 

Tomatoes, which grow exceptionally well in the warm soil surrounding the

Mediterranean, gradually made their way into regional cuisines. Culinary

 history was made in a big way when gazpacho, pasta and pizza, three specialties

 that had been on the scene for centuries, met the tomato for the first time.

 

Eventually the tomato returned to the New World, following several routes.

Spanish colonists took them to the Caribbean and, farther north, to Florida

and Texas. Slaves in the Caribbean and perhaps Africa, who already knew how to

use tomatoes in stews and other dishes, incorporated them into the cooking of

the American South. French and Italian immigrants brought tomato seeds with them

to plant in America.

 

The tomato traveled to the Philippines with the Spaniards and, from there, it

was only a matter of time until they showed up in Indian curries and other Asian

dishes.

 

Originally cultivated by the Aztecs and Incas as early as 700 A.D., the tomato

 is native to the Americas. Europeans were first made aware of the tomato when

 explorers brought back seed from Mexico and Central America in the 16th century.

Tomatoes quickly became popular in the Mediterranean countries but received

resistance as they spread north. The British in particular considered the

fruit to be beautiful but poisonous. This fear was shared in the American

colonies and it was years before the tomato gained wide spread acceptance. By

the middle of the 19th century, tomatoes were in use across America; and today

the tomato is generally considered to be the favorite vegetable of the World

 

public.

 

Genetic interdependence characterises both food crops and export crops. Even

the most genetically abundant regions of the world look beyond their own

 borders for half the germplasm they need for their staple foods. Wheat,

for example, originated in the Near East, but the specific genes that inspired

 semidwarf wheats and propelled the Green Revolution came from Japan via Mexico,

 and disease-resistant genes found recently in Brazil may support crop yields

as far away as India. Tomatoes originated in Latin America, but some of their

most useful processing qualities have come from the Philippines; and when corn

 blight struck the southern United States, resistant genes were found as far away

 as West Africa even though the crop's genetic "home" lies in MesoAmerica.

 

Native to Mexico and Central America, it's not clear how tomatoes came to the U.S..

 Thomas Jefferson grew them in the 1780s and credited one of his neighbors with

the introduction, but Harriott Pinckney Horry recorded a recipe "To Keep Tomatoes

 For Winter Use" in 1770. There is a folk legend that they were introduced by

 African slaves who came to North America by way of the Caribbean, and some

historians believe that the Portugese introduced tomatoes to the West Coast of

 Africa.

 

Where did Chili come from?

 

The majority of experts agree that the wide variety of peppers native to North

and South America came from the jungles of the Amazon. Seeds, carried by Amazon

 and later by Aztec Indians, spread throughout South and Central America and

into Mexico.

 

Aztec recipes as old as 2,000 years speak of a fiery hot pod added to stews.

Montezuma was said to have started his day with a plate of plain chile peppers.

 Rumor has it, the Aztec Indians much later in history when they were really

upset at the Spaniards, cut them up into small cubes and stewed them with chile

peppers!

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

The Niña, Pinta and Santa Maria

 

On Friday, August 3rd, 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail on a journey destined

to change the world. Landing in the Americas (thinking he was somewhere in the Far

 East) he mistook the fiery hot pod as peppercorns and called them peppers. The

native Indians offered him a stew made with chile peppers as a courtesy to a guest.

The hot taste reminded him of a stew he ate back in Spain that was prepared with

peppercorns obtained from spice traders (who got them from the Far East).

 

Peppercorns were the rage in Europe at the time so a direct sea route to the Far

East would be very convenient (profitable). When the natives offered Columbus

this stew he thought this must be the right place and the rest is history.

 

Over the next century seafaring explorers and spice traders distributed these

peppers to Europe, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. Many seeds were planted

but since chile peppers grow best close to the Equator, other countries developed

 strains unique to their climate and soil conditions.

 

It is estimated that today around 2,000 different varieties of peppers exist

 worldwide and 75% of all kitchens use peppers in some form.

 

The arrival of chili peppers in the area can be placed with relative accuracy.

 Chili peppers, indeed all peppers, are native to the Americas and arrived in

the region with European explorers/exploiters. This means they could not have

arrived before about 1520, and were widespread [in China] by 1600.

 

It is not fully clear how the paprika arrived in Hungary, but there is no

doubt that the fruits were brought by the Turks in the 17.th century, who

might have encountered them before in Portuguese settlements in Central Asia.

Anyway, paprika became quickly naturalized and have since proved an important

flavour in Hungarian cuisine. Still, some of the best paprika cultivars in

Europe are found in Hungary. An example is the cherry paprika ("cherry pepper",

 

 

Italian-spanish rice casserole barbaja w. #15113

posted by barbaja w. 11/30/2001

 

italian spanish rice cassorole uses up leftovers from other

meals fast can microwave in a hurry may make ahead then put

in fridggge with a lid to heat when you get ready i threw it

together when needed to use up leftovers

 

25 minutes (15 min prep, 10 min cooking)

6 servings or 1 cassorole Update to:  cassorole US  Metric

 

     rice (that you previosly cooked for example minute rice or

from another meal that is leftover)

   1/2    envelope onion soup

  1    lb cooked crumbled lean hamburger

     chopped fresh onion or dehydrated onion

     tomato sauce or spaghetti sauce or taco sauce (leftovers if possible)

     canned corn or frozen corn, drained

     canned mushrooms, drained

     fresh, cooked, drained bacon (, , , save the drippings)

   shredded cheese

 

1    mix the rice and tomato sauce together place in a microwave

safe cassorole.

2    then take the hamburger that is mixed with a little bacon drippings

(this is ok because the hamburger was 90% lean).

3    Layer the meat in next.

4    Layer in the ccorn then layer the mushrooms.

5    then the corn then the bacon for flavor and decoration.

6    now the shredded cheese.

7    microwave on high 5 minutes or so until heated thru and the

cheese is melted.

8    this sounds strange so if you are a health nut rember that

the hamburger was 90% lean and the bacon is for garnish so ther

is only alittle (do not use bacon bits) ok did you know you can

also add chili beans as a layer if you want.

 

Family is a big topic of conversation as the women cook. They talk

about favorite dishes from past Thanksgivings, about family recipes,

and about the different foods that are important to their cultures.

In the process of exchanging stories and recipes, the women learn

more about each other and share their knowledge. "Chary taught us

how to cook Spanish rice," says Anna. "I taught her how to make

Italian Spanish rice. Mine is more tomato-y and hers is spicier."

 

SPANISH STYLE RICE

 

1/2 C onion sliced

1/3 C bell pepper diced

2 Tbsp vegitable oil

1 1/2 C canned tomatoes

1 C water

1/8 tsp pepper

1 1/2 tsp sugar

1/2 C uncooked rice

 

Saute onion and bell pepper in oil until tender.  Add tomatoes,

water, seasoning.  Bring to a boil.  Stir in uncooked rice.

Reduce heat and cover.  cook slowly for approximately 30 minutes

- until rice is tender and liquid is abbsorbed.

 

 

Spanish Rice

 

4 slices bacon, diced

1 medium green bell pepper, diced

1 small onion, chopped

1 large garlic clove, crushed

1/2 pound ground beef

1 cups canned stewed tomatoes

1 cup long-grain rice

1 cup water

1 1/2 teaspoons TABASCO brand Pepper Sauce

1 teaspoon salt

 

In 12-inch skillet, over medium-high heat, cook bacon until crisp,

stirring occasionally. With slotted spoon, remove to paper towels;

set aside. In drippings remaining in skillet, over medium heat, cook

green pepper, onion and garlic until tender-crisp, about 5 minutes.

 

Remove to bowl.

 

In same skillet, over medium-high heat, cook ground beef until well

browned on all sides, stirring frequently. Add tomatoes with their

liquid, rice, water, TABASCO® brand Pepper Sauce, salt and green

pepper mixture. Over high heat, heat to boiling; reduce heat to low.

Cover and simmer 20 minutes or until rice is tender, stirring occasionally.

 

To serve, sprinkle mixture with cooked bacon.

 

Makes 4 servings.

 

 

(Incidentally, what is known in America as Spanish rice isn't Spanish

at all. If you ask an English-speaking waiter for Spanish rice, you'll

be served paella.)

 

Paella is rice, veggies and meat or seafood cooked in a skillet.

 

 

Mexican Spanish Rice (?)

 

-Ingredients:

3 T Shortening

1/2 c Onion, sliced

1 14 oz can whole tomatoes

1 t Black pepper

3 c Water

1 1/2 c Rice

1/2 c peeled seeded green chili pepper

1 md Clove garlic, minced

2 t Salt

 

Melt shortening in large skillet. Add rice and brown. When rice is a

golden brown, reduce heat and add onion, chili pepper, tomatoes,

garlic and pepper. Mix well and add 1 1/2 cups warm water or enough

to just cover the rice. Add salt. Cover and let simmer until almost

dry. Add remaining water, cold, a little at a time, cooking over low

heat until fluffy.

 

 

Basic Spanish Rice

 

4 md Tomatoes -- quartered

2 1/4 c Water

1 sm Onion -- chopped

1 c Brown rice

2 ts Garlic paste

1 ts Seasoned salt

5 dr Tabasco sauce

1 ts Molasses

1 c Chopped tomatoes

1/2 c Chopped fresh parsley

1/2 c Canned tomato sauce

1/2 lg Green pepper -- diced

 

Place quartered tomatoes and water in blender jar; puree. Pour into

large pot, add onion, and boil. Add rice, garlic paste, salt, Tabasco,

and molasses. Lower heat and simmer, covered, until rice has absorbed

almost all the water, usually 40-45 minutes. Add chopped tomatoes, parsley,

 and tomato sauce, stir well, and cover.

 

Fry bacon crisp in skillet; remove and blot on paper towels. Saute green

 pepper in bacon drippings; remove using slotted spoon and add to rise

mixture. Crumble bacon and add to rice mixture. Mix well and remove from

heat.

 

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Lightly oil bottom of 1-quart casserole;

pour rice mixture into it and bake for 20 minutes, or until rice is

tender. Yield: 3 cups.

 

 

Spanish Rice

 

6 slices bacon, diced

1/4 cp chopped onion

1/4 cp chopped green pepper

3 cps cooked rice

1 can (l lb) tomatoes

1 1/2 tsps salt

1/8 tsp pepper

 

Fry bacon in large skillet until crisp; remove bacon and drain.

 

Pour off all but 2 tbsps drippings.  Add onion and green pepper to

 drippings in skillet; cook and stir until onion is tender.   Stir

in bacon and remaining ingredients; cook uncovered over low heat

about 15 minutes.

 

4-6 servings.

 

To cook in oven, heat oven to 400; pour mixture into greased 1 1/2 qt

casserole, bake uncovered 25-30 min.

 

 

Spanish Rice (Fanny Farmer)

 

Fry in large frying pan;

 

2 tbsps bacon fat or butter

2 onions, sliced thin

 

Cook until the onion is soft.

 

Add

1 cp uncooked rice or 1 1/2 cps precooked rice

 

Stir until the rice is lightly browned.  Add

 3 cps boiling water or stock ( 1 1/2 cps for precooked rice)

2 8-oz cans tomato sauce or 2 chopped green peppers and 1 cp

canned or fresh tomatoes.

Stir well w fork, cover and cook slowly until the rice is tender.

(10 min for precooked rice, 30-40 for uncooked rice)  Season.

Sprinkle w grated cheese.

 

Serves 4-6.

 

 

Turkish pilaf

 

Put in a frying pan

 

2 tbsps butter, bacon fat or chicken fat

1/2 cp uncooked rice

 

Cook and stir over moderate hat until the ice is brown.  Add

 

 1 cp boiling water, tomato juice or canned boullion.

 

Cook slowly until the liquid is absorbed.  Add

 

1 3/4 cps drained canned tomatoes.

 

Cook unitl the rice is soft.  Add salt and pepper to taste.

 

Serves 4 to 6.

 

 

Spanish rice  (Joy of Cooking)

 

Saute until brown;

   3 slices minced bacon.

 

Remove bacon.  Stir and cook in the drippings until brown;

1/2 cp thinly sliced onions.

 

Add the bacon and:

 

1 1/4 cps canned tomatoes

1/2 tsp salt

1 tsp paprika

1 seeded and minced green pepper

(1 clove garlic)

 

Steam the rice in a double boiler for about 1 hour.  Stir it frequently.  Add water or stock if the rice becomes too dry.  It may be served with cheese sauce.

 

 

Pork Chop Spanish Rice (Better Homes and Gardens)

 

5 pork chops (1/2 in thick)

2 tbsps shortening

1 tsp salt

1/2 tsp chili powder

dash pepper

3/4 cp uncooked long-grain rice

1/2 cp chopped onion

1/4 cp chopped green pepper

1 1 lb 12-oz can (3 1/2 cps) tomatoes

5 green pepper rings

2 oz sharp process American cheese, shredded (1/2 cp)

 

Trim excess fat from chops.  Slowly brown chops in melted shortening abaout 15 to 20 minutes; drain off excess fat.

 

Combine salt, chili powder, pepper; sprinkle over meat.  Add rice, onion,  and chopped green pepper.  Pour tomatoes over.  Cover and cook over low heat 35 min, stiring occasionally.  Add green pepper rings and cook 5 min longer, or til rice and meat are tender.  Sprinkle w cheese.  Makes 5 servings.

 

Spanish Rice

 

6   slices of bacon, chopped

1/4 cup finely chopped onion

1/4 cup chopped green pepper

2   cups canned tomatoes

3   cups cooked rice

1   teas salt

1/8 teas pepper

 

Fry bacon until crisp; remove & add onion and green pepper  Cook slowly until onion is soft & yellow  Add remaining ingredients & bacon Bake in casserole dish in 350° oven for about 30 minutes  If desired, sprinkle 1/4 cup grated cheese over top before baking

 

Serves 8

 

Spanish Rice

 

1 large onion

1 large green pepper

1 lb. ground beef

1 can Rotel tomatoes + 6-oz. water

1/2 cup uncooked rice

1 tsp. chili powder

Salt and pepper to taste

 

Sauté onion and pepper, add meat and brown.  Add other ingredients.  Pour in 2 qt. casserole dish (greased).

 

Cover and bake 1 hour at 350º.

 

Remove cover last 15 minutes. If you don't like the extra"kick" the Rotel tomatoes give it just  use a 16 oz. can of diced regular tomatoes.

 

 

Spanish Rice

 

You could add a lb. of hamburger to it for a main meal, but I use it for a side dish.

 

1 onion chopped

1 tbls brown sugar

1 green pepper chopped

1 tbls Worcestershire

1 large can of tomatoes (juice and all)

1 tsp. chili powder

1 cup water

1 bay leaf

3/4 cup long grain rice

1 tsp. salt

pepper to taste

 

Cook onion and green pepper in a little hot oil, until tender Stir in all the rest Cover, and bring to a boil. Lower heat and simmer for 30 minutes, or until most of the liquid is gone.

 

Spanish Rice

 

1 Cup of rice

2 tablespoons bacon grease

1 medium onion, chopped

2 Clove garlic, finely chopped

1 16 ounce can stewed tomatoes

1 teaspoon black pepper

1 teaspoon salt

1 1/2 cups water

 

Fry rice in bacon grease until browned; add onion and garlic and sauté with rice 1 minute.  Add remaining ingredients, cover and simmer approximately 20 minutes  until tender.

 

Serves: 4 to 6

 

Red Rice

 

5 bacon strips

1 onion, diced

2 C. seeded, peeled fresh tomatoes

1 C. uncooked long grain rice

1 C. tomato juice or water

1 C. finely chopped, fully cooked ham

1/2 tsp. salt

1/8 tsp. pepper

1/8 tsp. hot pepper sauce

 

In a skillet cook bacon till crisp. Drain on paper towels. Discard all but 2. T of drippings.

Sauté onion in drippings till tender. Add bacon and remaining ingredients.

Cook covered over medium-low heat for 10 minutes.  Spoon into a 1 1/2 qt. baking dish.

Cover and bake at 350º for 45 minutes, or till rice is tender, stirring occasionally.

Serves 6

 

Red Rice

From Diana Rattray,

Your Guide to Southern U.S. Cuisine.

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A Southern style rice recipe, similar to a Spanish rice, made with tomatoes, peppers, onion, rice, bacon, and other ingredients.

INGREDIENTS:

4 to 6 slices bacon, about 4 ounces

1 medium onion, chopped

2 ribs celery, chopped

1/2 bell pepper, chopped

2 cups uncooked rice

2 (14.5 ounces each) cans tomatoes, pureéd

2 teaspoons salt, or to taste

1/4 teaspoon pepper

1 scant teaspoon sugar

3 or 4 drops Tabasco, or to taste

PREPARATION:

In a large heavy skillet, fry bacon until crisp; remove from pan to paper towels. Drain well then crumble and set aside. Sauté onions, celery, and green pepper in the bacon grease until tender.

 

Add rice, tomatoes, crumbled bacon, and seasonings. Cook on top of the stove for 10 minutes. Pour into a large buttered baking dish; cover tightly and bake at 350° for 1 hour, or until rice is tender.

Serves 6 to 8.

 

 

http://www.dianaskitchen.com/cgi-bin/MasterPFP.cgi?doc=self&top=self&bottom=http://www.dianaskitchen.com/

 

Note that this is virtually the same recipe as my mother's without the cloves.  

 

Spanish Rice

6 slices bacon

1 cup chopped onion

1/3 cup chopped green bell pepper

1 can (10 3/4 ounces) condensed tomato soup

1 cup water

1/2 cup raw regular long-grain rice

1 small bay leaf

1/4 teaspoon salt

 

 

 

Proving that "cloves" in spanish rice recipe means cloves, not cloves of garlic:

 

http://www.xmission.com/~dderhak/recipe/paella.htm

 

From: Sharalee <Sharalee@planning.mit.edu>

 

The reason you have found paella to be radically different depending where you get it is that it's another of these wonderful "collect everything in the fridge and throw it in the pot" dishes. The following is sort of an outline -- improvise to suit your own tastes. Quantities, except for the rice and broth, are extremely flexible.

 

Phase I - Make the chicken & broth

Put 3lb or so of chicken parts (or a whole fryer) in about 10 cups of water with salt and pepper. Add a couple of bay leaves and a few whole cloves. You can also add things like onion, garlic, celery, carrot, leeks, etc as you would when making chicken soup. Cook until the chicken is tender. Strain & save the broth, and discard (or eat) all the solid bits except the chicken meat and the bay leaves. Tear the chicken into manageable pieces and set aside. (I've had paella where the chicken was left on the bones, and I find it rather difficult to eat.)

 

Phase II - Things to be sauteed

olive oil (for sauteeing)

garlic, several cloves, sliced, crushed or minced

onion, 1 med to large, chopped

1 large bell pepper, finely diced (you could add a small hot pepper

also if you felt like it)

3-4 medium tomatoes, chopped, left sitting in some wine

chorizo, cut into 1/4" slices (i've used kielbasa when i can't get

chorizo - it doesn't matter as long as

it's that kind of firm sausage)

shrimp, shelled and deveined

 

Heat some olive oil over high heat in a *large* pan (they actually sell paella pans, but you can use a large saute pan or even a wok). Add the garlic and saute until light brown. Add the onions, cook until translucent. Add the pepper, cook a few minutes more. Add the sausage and shrimp. When the shrimp are done (they've *just* turned kind of orange-red-pink and are curled up -- don't overcook them), add the tomatoes and their wine. Turn the heat down a bit.

 

Phase III -- The Wet Part

You will need:

the chicken broth, chicken & bay leaves from Phase I

a small sack (a couple pounds, I guess) of live mussels and/or clams

3 cups rice

oregano, thyme, ground pepper (black or white, a little cayenne if you like)

saffron

 

Prepare the shellfish (remove their beards, wash the shells, make sure none of them are dead). Put roughly six cups of broth into the pan with the cooked veggies, sausage and shrimp. Add spices to taste (don't forget the bay leaves). The saffron should be maybe 2-3 threads -- it's the big flavor here. Stir thoroughly, then add the shellfish. Cook for a few minutes, and the shellfish should start to open. When they are well on their way, start sprinkling the rice over the mixture, gently folding it in as you go. Be careful from this point on not to mangle the shellfish -- you don't want a lot of empty shells when you're done. When all the rice is in the dish, let it cook for 10 minutes or so, stirring occasionally. Add the rest of the broth and the cooked chicken pieces. Continue cooking until the rice is "right" -- tender, not too dry, not too wet. Take out the bay leaves (or don't bother if it's just you).

 

I've had this with peas in it, which was quite good. You can use any kind of shellfish, vary the veggies, change the spices, substitute bite sized pieces of boneless pork for the sausage, etc etc. Use your imagination and have fun!

 

http://www.tqnyc.org/NYC062704/recipes.htm

 

 Spanish Style Rice

  Categories: Side dish, Spanish

       Yield: 4 servings

  

     1/2 lb Mushrooms, sliced

       4 tb Margarine

            Salt & pepper

       2 tb Sweet wine or sherry

       1 sm Onion, chopped

       1 ea Garlic clove, minced

       2 tb Olive oil

   1 1/2 c  Long grain rice

       1 md Breen bell pepper, diced

       4 md Tomatoes, chopped

       3 c  Hot water

       3 ea Whole cloves

       1 ea Bay leaf

       1 ds Cayenne

            Parsley for garnish

  

   Saute mushrooms in 2 tb margarine for a few minutes.  Add salt &

   pepper. Cover & remove from heat.  Saute the onion & garlic in the

   oil & remaining margarine.  Raise heat a little & add the rice,

   stirring till well coated. Add green pepper, tomatoes, hot water,

   cloves, bay leaf, cayenne, mushrooms & stir.  Cover, reduce heat &

   simmer for 15 minutes.  Add wine after about 10 minutes.  Remove

   cloves & bay leaf & sprinkle with parsley before serving.

   

http://www.astray.com/recipes/?show=Spanish%20style%20rice

 

Spanish style rice

Categories: Side dish  European  

Yield: 4 servings

½ pounds Mushrooms, sliced

4 tablespoon Margarine

  Salt & pepper

2 tablespoon Sweet wine or sherry

1 small Onion, chopped

1 each Garlic clove, minced

2 tablespoon Olive oil

1 ½ cup Long grain rice

1 medium Breen bell pepper, diced

4 medium Tomatoes, chopped

3 cup Hot water

3 each Whole cloves

1 each Bay leaf

1 dash Cayenne

  Parsley for garnish

 

Saute mushrooms in 2 tb margarine for a few minutes. Add salt & pepper. Cover & remove from heat. Saute the onion & garlic in the oil & remaining margarine. Raise heat a little & add the rice, stirring till well coated. Add green pepper, tomatoes, hot water, cloves, bay leaf, cayenne, mushrooms & stir. Cover, reduce heat & simmer for 15 minutes. Add wine after about 10 minutes. Remove cloves & bay leaf & sprinkle with parsley before serving. Vera Gewanter, "A Passion for Vegetables"

Related recipes

 

Recipes By Léon Brocard / Last updated January 2007

 

http://www.mariquita.com/recipes/tomatoes.html

 

CHILI SAUCE

 

12 large tomatoes (peeled)

3 large sweet peppers

3 large onions

6 small hot peppers

2 cups of sugar

2 cups of vinegar

1 teaspoon cloves ground

some salt

1 teaspoon nutmeg

1 teaspoon celery seed

1 teaspoon allspice

 

Boil tomatoes awhile -- add peppers and onions chopped fine -- add vinegar and sugar -- cook slowly -- add spices and simmer till thick (4-5 hours)

 

TOMATO SAUCE

 

18 Tomatoes

2 sweet peppers

2 medium onions

2 Tablespoons sugar, or to taste

2 teaspoons salt

1 teaspoon ground cinnamon

1/2 teaspoon ground cloves

1 teaspoon allspice

2 cups vinegar

 

PEEL, core, and chop tomatoes. Chop peppers and onions fine. Combine all ingredients. Boil slowly 4 hours or until thick. Fill boiling hot to within 1/2 inch of top of jar. Process 10 minutes in Boiling Water Bath.

 

TOMATO CATSUP

 

1 peck (12 1/2 pounds) ripe tomatoes

2 medium onions

1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper

2 cups cider vinegar

1 1/2 tablespoons broken stick cinnamon

1 tablespoon whole cloves

3 cloves garlic (finely chopped)

1 tablespoon paprika

1 cup sugar

2 1/2 teaspoons salt

 

WASH and slice tomatoes and boil until soft. Into another kettle slice the onions. Cover with a small quantity of water and cook until tender. Run the cooked onions and tomatoes through a sieve. Mix the onion and tomato pulp. Add the cayenne pepper. Boil this mixture rapidly until it has been reduced to about 1/2 original volume. Place vinegar in an enamel pan; add a spice bag containing the cinnamon, cloves and garlic. Allow this to simmer for about 30 minutes, then bring to boil. Place cover on pan and remove from heat. Allow this to stand in covered pan until ready to use. When tomato mixture has cooked down to 1/2 original volume, add mixture, of which there should be 1 and 1/4 cups. Add the paprika, sugar and salt and boil rapidly until thick. This should require about 10 minutes. Pour while boiling into sterilized jars to within 1/2 inch of top. Put on cap, screw band firmly tight. Process in Boiling Water Bath 5 minutes. Yield: 6 pints.